Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide and Its Receptors: 20 Years after the Discovery

@article{Vaudry2009PituitaryAC,
  title={Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide and Its Receptors: 20 Years after the Discovery},
  author={David Vaudry and Anthony Falluel-Morel and Steve Bourgault and Magali Basille and Delphine Burel and Olivier Wurtz and Alain Fournier and Billy Kwok Chong Chow and Hitoshi Hashimoto and Ludovic Galas and Hubert Vaudry},
  journal={Pharmacological Reviews},
  year={2009},
  volume={61},
  pages={283 - 357}
}
Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a 38-amino acid C-terminally α-amidated peptide that was first isolated 20 years ago from an ovine hypothalamic extract on the basis of its ability to stimulate cAMP formation in anterior pituitary cells (Miyata et al., 1989. PACAP belongs to the vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP)-secretin-growth hormone-releasing hormone-glucagon superfamily. The sequence of PACAP has been remarkably well conserved during evolution from… 
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Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) was first isolated in 1989 from ovine hypothalamus due to its potent ability to stimulate cAMP accumulation in rat anterior pituitary cell
Tracing the Origins of the Pituitary Adenylate-Cyclase Activating Polypeptide (PACAP)
TLDR
The results suggest that elements of the PACAP system are absent from protozoans, non-bilaterians, and protostomes and they only emerged after the protostome-deuterostome divergence.
Neuroprotective Effects of Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide
TLDR
A number of recent studies have discovered the neuroprotective functions of PACAP in both in vitro and in vivo models and information for the future use in the clinic is provided.
Multifaces of Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide (PACAP):From Neuroprotection and Energy Homeostasis to Respiratory andCardiovascular Systems
TLDR
Current insight is provided on the role of PACAP in neuroprotection, its role in energy homeostasis and the impact PACAP may have on respiratory and cardiovascular disease.
Pharmacology and functions of receptors for vasoactive intestinal peptide and pituitary adenylate cyclase‐activating polypeptide: IUPHAR Review 1
TLDR
The existing nomenclature for these receptors is confirmed, the current understanding of their structure, pharmacology and functions and their likely physiological roles in health and disease are reviewed.
Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase Activating Polypeptide — PACAP
The evolution of the secretin/pituitary adenylyl cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) family of peptides in relation to three rounds of genome duplication events occurred during vertebrate
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References

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Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide
TLDR
The bronchodilatator and vasorelaxant effects of PACAP, as well as the antiproliferative and neuroprotective actions of the peptide, make it a valuable target for new drug development.
Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide: a key player in reproduction?
TLDR
Two articles are epitomized by two articles in this issue that examine the influence of PACAP on pituitary gonadotropes and the expression ofPACAP within the testes.
Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide and its receptors: from structure to functions.
TLDR
The current knowledge concerning the multiple actions of PACAP in the central nervous system and in various peripheral organs including the endocrine glands, the airways, and the cardiovascular and immune systems are reviewed, as well as the different effects ofPACAP on a number of tumor cell types.
Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase‐Activating Polypeptide and Its Type I Receptors in the Rat Hypothalamus: Neuroendocrine Interactions a
TLDR
The highest concentration of PACAP-38 detected by radioimmunoassay was found in the hypothalamus, but other regions of the brain, such as the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and the posterior pituitary, also contained a significant amount ofPACAP.
Localization of Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase‐Activating Polypeptide and Its Type I Receptors in the Rat Ovary: Immunohistochemistry and in Situ Hybridization a
TLDR
Radioimmunoassays revealed the presence of PACAP-38 in tissues throughout the central nervous system, including the hypothalamus, cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and posterior pituitary, and also in many peripheral tissues, includingThe gastrointestinal tract, lung, adrenal, testis, and ovary.
Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) and PACAP/vasoactive intestinal polypeptide receptors: actions on the anterior pituitary gland.
TLDR
The present review will deal specifically with the putative role of PACAP as a hypophysiotropic factor regulating anterior pituitary cell activity.
Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) and its receptors in the brain.
  • S. Shioda
  • Biology, Medicine
    Kaibogaku zasshi. Journal of anatomy
  • 2000
TLDR
Pituitary adenylate-activating polypeptide appears to function as a neuroprotective factor that attenuates the neuronal damage resulting from various insults and may play an important role during the development of the brain.
Pituitary adenylate cyclase‐activating polypeptide and its receptors in amphibians
TLDR
In the frog Rana ridibunda, PACAP exerts a large array of biological effects in the brain, pituitary, adrenal gland, and ovary, suggesting that, in amphibians as in mammals,PACAP may act as neurotrophic factor, a neurotransmitter and a neurohormone.
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