Pitch is determined by naturally occurring periodic sounds

  title={Pitch is determined by naturally occurring periodic sounds},
  author={David A. Schwartz and Dale Purves},
  journal={Hearing Research},

Neural representations of pitch : role of peripheral frequency selectivity

Investigating the neural mechanisms underlying the perception of the pitch of harmonic complex tones is of great importance for many reasons. Changes in pitch convey melody in music, and the

Are Auditory Percepts Determined by Experience?

An alternative perspective that sensory percepts are based on past experience is considered, which may offer a rationale for auditory phenomena that are difficult to explain in terms of the physical attributes of the stimuli as such.

Pitch perception beyond the traditional existence region of pitch

It is found that robust pitch perception can be elicited by harmonic complex tones with fundamental frequencies below 2 kHz, even when all of the individual harmonics are above 6 kHz—well above the currently accepted existence region of pitch and above the Currently accepted limits of neural phase locking.

Pitch of complex tones: rate-place and interspike interval representations in the auditory nerve.

This study investigated the resolvability of harmonics of missing-fundamental complex tones in the auditory nerve (AN) of anesthetized cats at low and moderate stimulus levels and compared the effectiveness of two representations of pitch over a much wider range of F0s than in previous studies.

Experience-dependent Enhancement of Linguistic Pitch Representation in the Brainstem Is Not Specific to a Speech Context

Findings support the view that at early preattentive stages of subcortical processing, neural mechanisms underlying pitch representation are shaped by particular dimensions of the auditory stream rather than speech per se.

New music system reveals spectral contribution to statistical learning

It is shown that spectral amplitude distribution is a useful cue for statistical learning, and suggested that musical scale structure might be acquired through exposure to spectral distribution in sounds.

Musical intervals in speech

Analysis of a database of individually spoken English vowel phones implies that human preference for the intervals of the chromatic scale arises from experience with the way speech formants modulate laryngeal harmonics to create different phonemes.

A biological basis for musical tonality

Recent evidence is considered that bears on the idea that the structure and function of the tonal sounds produced by the human vocal apparatus may provide the key to understanding how and why the authors perceive tonality in music the way that they do.



The Statistical Structure of Human Speech Sounds Predicts Musical Universals

Analysis of speech sounds shows that the probability distribution of amplitude-frequency combinations in human utterances predicts both the structure of the chromatic scale and consonance ordering, suggesting that what the authors hear is determined by the statistical relationship between acoustical stimuli and their naturally occurring sources, rather than by the physical parameters of the stimulus.

“Periodicity” Pitch and “Place” Pitch

In the year of the founding of the Acoustical Society of America, Wever and Bray observed periodic “volleys” of impulses in the auditory nerve. Since that time, the theory of pitch

Tonotopic cortical representation of periodic complex sounds

The results show that the spectral content CF of the complex sounds employed here predominates, at the latency of the 100m component, over a concurrent mapping of their periodic frequency Fo.

Pitch perception of two-frequency stimuli.

  • G. Smoorenburg
  • Physics, Engineering
    The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
  • 1970
An exploratory experiment revealed that subjects perceive the pitches of individual part‐tones or the stimulus as a whole with a pitch corresponding to about the fundamental frequency, and the large pitch shift was explained by taking into account an auditory nonlinearity which generates combination tones of the type f1−k(f2−f1).

Neural correlates of the pitch of complex tones. I. Pitch and pitch salience.

The temporal discharge patterns of auditory nerve fibers in Dial-anesthetized cats were studied in response to periodic complex acoustic waveforms that evoke pitches at their fundamental frequencies, suggesting that existence of a central processor capable of analyzing these interval patterns could provide a unified explanation for many different aspects of pitch perception.

Neural correlates of the pitch of complex tones. II. Pitch shift, pitch ambiguity, phase invariance, pitch circularity, rate pitch, and the dominance region for pitch.

This paper addresses the neural correlates of stimuli that produce more complex patterns of pitch judgments, such as shifts in pitch and multiple pitches, and investigates the relation between pitches associated with periodicity and those associated with click rate.

Some Experiments Relating to the Perception of Complex Tones

  • B. Moore
  • Physics
    The Quarterly journal of experimental psychology
  • 1973
It was found that under some conditions the complex had a well-defined pitch when none of the individual partials was separately audible, contrary to the predictions from the pattern recognition models.

Pitch identification and discrimination for complex tones with many harmonics

Four experiments are reported that deal with pitch perception of harmonic complex tones containing up to 11 successive harmonics. In particular, the question is raised whether the pitch percept of

An optimum processor theory for the central formation of the pitch of complex tones.

  • J. L. Goldstein
  • Mathematics
    The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
  • 1973
A theory was formulated for the central formation of the pitch of complex tones, i.e., periodicity pitch. This theory is a logical deduction from statistical estimation theory of the optimal estimate

Tonotopic representation of missing fundamental complex sounds in the human auditory cortex

The N1m component of the auditory evoked magnetic field in response to tones and complex sounds was examined and a more pronounced tonotopic representation in the right hemisphere gave evidence for right hemispheric dominance in spectral processing.