Piracetam and other structurally related nootropics

  title={Piracetam and other structurally related nootropics},
  author={Alex Haahr Gouliaev and Alexander Erich Eugen Senning},
  journal={Brain Research Reviews},

Figures and Tables from this paper

Nootropic Nefiracetam Inhibits Proconvulsant Action of Peripheral‐Type Benzodiazepines in Epileptic Mutant EL Mice

Nefiracetam may prevent toxic effects of PBR agonists through interacting with PBR, a specific agonist for peripheral‐type benzodiazepine receptors (PBR) in EL mice.

Stereochemistry of phenylpiracetam and its methyl derivative: improvement of the pharmacological profile

The results of comparative pharmacological testing of individual enantiomers provides the evidence of their pharmacological advantages, justifying the choice of the most effective stereoisomer and the necessity for drug substance purification from the less active one(s).

An investigation of the neuropharmacological and behavioural effects of fenamate and other NSAIDs.

The data show that fenamate NSAIDs can directly modulate native neuronal ligand-gated ion channels and that MFA can enhance working memory in normal and scopolamine-impaired rats and that these effects are not task-specific.

A Review on Synthesis and Pharmacological Activities of Piracetam and its Derivatives

Piracetam is generally utilized as a nootropic drug, which is normally used in the treatment of CNS disorders. Piracetam is a cyclic compound and a derivative of γ-aminobutyric acid and improves

3-α-tropanyl 2-(4-Cl-phenoxy)butyrate (SM 21): A Review of the Pharmacological Profile of a Novel Enhancer of Cholinergic Transmission

An investigation of the antinociceptive and antiamnesic effect of atropine, using microdialysis techniques has demonstrate that R-(+)hyoscyamine, at cholinomimetic doses, produced an increase in the acetylcholine release from the rat cerebral cortex in vivo, indicating that this compound has a presynaptic mechanism of action.

Pharmacological Characterization of the Novel ACh Releaser α‐tropanyl 2‐(4‐bromophenyl)propionate (PG‐9)

An investigation of the antinociceptive and antiamnesic effect of atropine has demonstrated that R-(+)-hyoscyamine, at cholinomimetic doses, produced an increase in acetylcholine release from the rat cerebral cortex in vivo, indicating that it acts via a presynaptic mechanism.

Piracetam and TRH analogues antagonise inhibition by barbiturates, diazepam, melatonin and galanin of human erythrocyte D‐glucose transport

It is shown that piracetam and TRH antagonise the inhibition of glucose transport by barbiturates, diazepam, melatonin and endogenous neuropeptide galanin in human erythrocytes in vitro, showing similarities between amino‐acid sequences in human glucose transport protein isoform 1 (GLUT1) and the benzodiazepine‐binding domains of GABAA (gamma amino butyric acid) receptor subunits.



Nootropic drugs and brain cholinergic mechanisms

  • G. PepeuG. Spignoli
  • Biology, Chemistry
    Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry
  • 1989

Interaction of piracetam with several neurotransmitter receptors in the central nervous system. Relative specificity for 3H-glutamate sites.

It is concluded that effects within the glutaminergic system of the brain could contribute to the therapeutical effects of piracetam in man.

Piracetam. An overview of its pharmacological properties and a review of its therapeutic use in senile cognitive disorders.

Piracetam is the first of the so-called 'nootropic' drugs, a unique class of drugs which affect mental function. In animal models and in healthy volunteers, the drug improves the efficiency of the

Piracetam potentiates the antiepileptic action of carbamazepine in chronic experimental limbic epilepsy

In this model, carbamazepine can reduce the severity of the epilepsy and at the same time reduce any memory deficit resulting from the epilepsy, while phenytoin is not a particularly effective anticonvulsant.

New Pharmacological Perspectives on Nootropic Drugs

While complete agreement between pharmacologists has not yet been attained, the vast majority agree that nootropic drugs have at least the following properties in common: they improve some aspect of cognitive performance—usually learning and/or memory in animals.

Synthesis and anticonvulsant activity of 1-acyl-2-pyrrolidinone derivatives.

The results suggested that the pharmacological activity of 1-acyl-2-pyrrolidinone is probably due to the release of GABA by hydrolysis of derivatives although further work is necessary.

Investigations on the binding properties of the nootropic agent pyroglutamic acid.

The two stereoisomers of pyroglutamic acid (PCA), a nootropic or cognition-enhancing agent, and classic reference compounds were investigated for their ability to interact with 27 neurotransmitter

Some neurochemical properties of pramiracetam (CI‐879), a new cognition‐enhancing agent

It is concluded that the mechanism of action of pramiracetam does not appear to be due to a direct action upon DA and 5‐HT neurotransmitter systems or various brain receptors, and this effect could be at least partially responsible for the enhancement of cognition processes observed for this agent.

[Biochemical studies of oxiracetam (CT-848) on cholinergic neurons].

The results suggest that oxiracetam enhances precholinergic functions, and does not affect the acetylcholinesterase activity in mouse brain homogenate.