Piracetam and Piracetam-Like Drugs

  title={Piracetam and Piracetam-Like Drugs},
  author={Andrei G. Malykh and M. Reza Sadaie},
There is an increasing interest in nootropic drugs for the treatment of CNS disorders. Since the last meta-analysis of the clinical efficacy of piracetam, more information has accumulated. The primary objective of this systematic survey is to evaluate the clinical outcomes as well as the scientific literature relating to the pharmacology, pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics, mechanism of action, dosing, toxicology and adverse effects of marketed and investigational drugs. The major focus of the… 

Levetiracetam Mechanisms of Action: From Molecules to Systems

A comprehensive and integrative review of LEV in relation to its clinical uses, structural properties, therapeutical targets, and different molecular, genetic, and systemic action mechanisms is carried out in order to consider LEV as a candidate for drug repurposing.

A Review on Synthesis and Pharmacological Activities of Piracetam and its Derivatives

Piracetam is generally utilized as a nootropic drug, which is normally used in the treatment of CNS disorders. Piracetam is a cyclic compound and a derivative of γ-aminobutyric acid and improves

Drug therapies for tardive dyskinesia: part 2.

  • R. Howland
  • Medicine, Biology
    Journal of psychosocial nursing and mental health services
  • 2011
Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a serious complication associated with the long-term use of dopamine receptor-blocking drugs, and a number of drugs appear to have some benefit for its treatment.

Synthetic Approaches toward the Synthesis of Brivaracetam: An Antiepileptic Drug

Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disorder in the brain, affecting individuals of all age groups. Nearly 1% of the world population is affected by seizure disorder, of which 80% of the patients are

Comparative toxicity and toxicokinetic studies of oxiracetam and (S)-oxiracetam in dogs

The 13-week toxicokinetics study indicated that, in the (S)-ORT group, the time to peak concentration was delayed, elimination half-life extended, and apparent volume of distribution increased compared with the ORT group.

Brivaracetam efficacy and safety in focal epilepsy

There was no added benefit when BRV was used adjunctively with LEV in clinical trials, however, post-marketing data suggest that some patients may experience improved seizure control when switching from LEV.

Neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory activity of DAT inhibitor R-phenylpiracetam in experimental models of inflammation in male mice

The study showed that R-PhP possesses neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects, demonstrating the potential of DAT inhibitors as effective therapeutics.

Stereochemistry of phenylpiracetam and its methyl derivative: improvement of the pharmacological profile

The results of comparative pharmacological testing of individual enantiomers provides the evidence of their pharmacological advantages, justifying the choice of the most effective stereoisomer and the necessity for drug substance purification from the less active one(s).


This review highlights 6 major substances used as performance enhancers, namely, creatine, racetams, melatonin, caffeine, cholinergics and EPO, which enhance different features of human performance.

Nootropics as Cognitive Enhancers: Types, Dosage and Side Effects of Smart Drugs

This review provides an up-to-date overview of the potential effectiveness and importance of nootropic drugs and specific recommendations regarding the use of nootropics by both ill and healthy individuals are summarized.



A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Efficacy of Piracetam and Piracetam-Like Compounds in Experimental Stroke

The evidence supporting a protective effect of piracetam and its derivatives in animal models of stroke is described, but concerns are raised about the amount of available data, the quality of the studies and publication bias.

Seletracetam (UCB 44212)

Brivaracetam: a new drug in development for epilepsy and neuropathic pain

Brivaracetam represents a new mechanism of action being a ligand of synaptic vesicle protein 2A and is undergoing Phase III evaluation after a successful Phase II programme in which was effective as an adjunctive treatment in partial-onset epilepsy.

Piracetam: physiological disposition and mechanism of action.

Experimental and clinical data on piracetam's absorption, distribution, and excretion are summarized, and biochemical data available that bear on its mechanism of action are described.

Brivaracetam: a rational drug discovery success story

  • M. Rogawski
  • Psychology, Biology
    British journal of pharmacology
  • 2008
Brivaracetam is among the first clinically effective AEDs to be discovered by optimization of pharmacodynamic activity at a molecular target and is efficacious and well tolerated in the treatment of partial onset seizures.

The pharmacokinetics, CNS pharmacodynamics and adverse event profile of brivaracetam after multiple increasing oral doses in healthy men.

Brivaracetam had a favourable pharmacokinetic profile in this population, characterized by rapid absorption, volume of distribution limited to total body water, apparent single-compartment elimination and dose proportionality.

The pharmacokinetics, CNS pharmacodynamics and adverse event profile of brivaracetam after single increasing oral doses in healthy males.

Brivaracetam was well tolerated after increasing single doses that represent up to several times the expected therapeutic dose and was found to have desirable pharmacokinetic properties.

Comparative studies of Noopept and piracetam in the treatment of patients with mild cognitive disorders in organic brain diseases of vascular and traumatic origin

The detection of mild cognitive disorders is extremely important from the practical point of view, because therapeutic measures can have the greatest efficacy at this stage of cerebral insufficiency and the chances of obtaining compensation once dementia has developed are significantly restricted.

The safety of levetiracetam

The most common adverse effects are somnolence, asthenia and dizziness, which usually appear early after initiation of levetiracetam therapy and generally resolve without medication withdrawal.

Design and study of piracetam-like nootropics, controversial members of the problematic class of cognition-enhancing drugs.

Reasons for the problems encountered by nootropics, compounds therapeutically available and those in development, their structure activity relationships and mechanisms of action are discussed and the class is examined in more detail.