Piracetam: a review of pharmacological properties and clinical uses.

@article{Winblad2005PiracetamAR,
  title={Piracetam: a review of pharmacological properties and clinical uses.},
  author={B. Winblad},
  journal={CNS drug reviews},
  year={2005},
  volume={11 2},
  pages={
          169-82
        }
}
  • B. Winblad
  • Published 2005
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • CNS drug reviews
Piracetam, a derivative of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), has a variety of physiological effects that may result, at least in part, from the restoration of cell membrane fluidity. At a neuronal level, piracetam modulates neurotransmission in a range of transmitter systems (including cholinergic and glutamatergic), has neuroprotective and anticonvulsant properties, and improves neuroplasticity. At a vascular level, it appears to reduce erythrocyte adhesion to vascular… Expand
Recent Advances on Piracetam
Piracetam, a derivative of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), is responsible for the restoration of cell membrane fluidity. Piracetam modifies neurotransmission in a range ofExpand
Heroin–piracetam mixture: Suggested mechanisms of action and risks of misinterpretation for drug users
TLDR
The relevant literature is reviewed and the main hypothetical mechanisms that justify its use as a heroin adulterant are suggested, to understand if its use could help people who want to come off heroin by reducing withdrawal symptoms and to give useful information that permit us to understand why drug trafficking organisations started to use piracetam. Expand
Dissociative Symptoms Secondary to Piracetam: A Case Report
TLDR
A case is reported with the diagnosis of peripheral vertigo where piracetam was used as pari of combination therapy and dissociative symptom; like depersonalization and derealization occurred after use and these symptoms disappeared after discontinuation of Piracetam. Expand
Piracetam induces plasma membrane depolarization in rat brain synaptosomes
TLDR
It was found that piracetam induces chloride efflux which seems to be the reason of depolarization of plasma membrane of isolated neuronal presynaptic endings by picrotoxin-sensitive way. Expand
Novel psychoactive substances of interest for psychiatry
Novel psychoactive substances include synthetic cannabinoids, cathinone derivatives, psychedelic phenethylamines, novel stimulants, synthetic opioids, tryptamine derivatives, phencyclidine‐likeExpand
Analgesic activity of piracetam: Effect on cytokine production and oxidative stress
TLDR
It is demonstrated that piracetam presents analgesic activity upon a variety of inflammatory stimuli by a mechanism dependent on inhibition of cytokine production and oxidative stress. Expand
A novel CaV2.2 channel inhibition by piracetam in peripheral and central neurons
TLDR
Evidence is provided of piracetam's actions on CaV2.2 channels in peripheral neurons, which might explain some of its nootropic effects in central neurons. Expand
Levetiracetam and brivaracetam: a review of evidence from clinical trials and clinical experience
TLDR
This review summarizes the essential preclinical and clinical data of LEV and BRV that is currently available and includes the experiences at a large tertiary referral epilepsy center. Expand
(S)-Oxiracetam is the Active Ingredient in Oxiracetam that Alleviates the Cognitive Impairment Induced by Chronic Cerebral Hypoperfusion in Rats
TLDR
The results strongly suggest that (S)-oxiracetam alone could be a nootropic drug for the treatment of cognitive impairments caused by cerebral hypoperfusion. Expand
Neuroprotective effects of zafirlukast, piracetam and their combination on L‐Methionine‐induced vascular dementia in rats
Vascular dementia is considered a vascular cognitive impairment disease caused by neuronal degeneration in the brain. Several studies have supported the hypothesis that oxidative stress andExpand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 103 REFERENCES
Piracetam: novelty in a unique mode of action.
TLDR
This novel mechanism of piracetam combines a rather non-specific physico-chemical mode of action with the pharmacological and clinical experience with this unique drug - effects are always much more pronounced when function is impaired. Expand
Synergistic effects of oxiracetam and piracetam in combination with antiepileptic drugs *
TLDR
The present study was designed to show to what extent the nootropic agents piracetam and oxiracetam might affect the anticonvulsant action of carbamazepine, phenytoin, phenobarbitone, clonazepam and valproinate sodium. Expand
Piracetam in Patients with Chronic Vertigo
TLDR
Findings provide further evidence that piracetam alleviates vertigo by reducing the frequency of episodes, the severity of malaise and imbalance between episodes, and the duration of associated incapacity. Expand
Platelet anti-aggregant and rheological properties of piracetam. A pharmacodynamic study in normal subjects.
TLDR
The random administration of four different single oral doses of piracetam has confirmed and explicited its platelet anti-aggregant and rheological properties and confirmed the presence of four sites of action: the vessel wall, platelets, plasma and cell membranes (RBC, WBC), which provide the basis for the potentially important antithrombotic activity of Piracetam. Expand
The activating action of vincamine, piracetam, and hydergine on the activity of the noradrenergic neurons of the locus coeruleus
The effect of vincamine, hydergine, and piracetam on the discharge rate of noradrenergic neurons of the locus coeruleus (LC) was studied using conventional single-cell recording techniques.Expand
Piracetam potentiates the antiepileptic action of carbamazepine in chronic experimental limbic epilepsy
TLDR
In this model, carbamazepine can reduce the severity of the epilepsy and at the same time reduce any memory deficit resulting from the epilepsy, while phenytoin is not a particularly effective anticonvulsant. Expand
Piracetam in the treatment of acute stroke.
TLDR
The Piracetam in Acute Stroke Study was performed and the chief results have recently been reported, with a significant increase compared with placebo in the number of patients recovered from aphasia but no significant neurologic or functional improvement. Expand
The effects of piracetam on lipofuscin of the rat cerebellar and hippocampal neurons after long-term alcohol treatment and withdrawal: a quantitative study.
TLDR
Piracetam was found to markedly decrease the formation of neuronal lipofuscin in alcohol-treated and withdrawn rats, which might be related either to a protective effect on the intraneuronal membranous system or to an antioxidant property of this molecule. Expand
Pyrrolidone derivatives
TLDR
Interest in this drug class has recently been reawakened by the licensing of levetiracetam as a potentially major new antiepileptic drug and of piracetam for its antimyoclonic action and effects after stroke and in mild cognitive impairment. Expand
Potentiation of the anticonvulsant effects of antiepileptic drugs by “nootropics”; a potential new therapeutic approach
TLDR
A large series of experiments on rats were carried out with the aim of investigating the combined effects of nootropics and antiepileptics on convulsions induced by electroshock, and finding that both piracetam and vincamine potentiated the anticonvulsant effects of carbamazepine. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...