Pipelined processors and worst case execution times


The calculation of worst case execution time (WCET) is a fundamental requirement of almost all scheduling approaches for hard real-time systems. Due to their unpredictability, hardware enhancements such as cache and pipelining are often ignored in attempts to find WCET of programs. This results in estimations that are excessively pessimistic. In this article a simple instruction pipeline is modeled so that more accurate estimations are obtained. The model presented can be used with any schedulability analysis that allows sections of nonpreemptable code to be included. Our results indicate the WCET overestimates at basic block level can be reduced from over 20% to less than 2%, and that the overestimates for typical structured real-time programs can be reduced by 17%–40%.

DOI: 10.1007/BF01088834

Extracted Key Phrases

10 Figures and Tables


Citations per Year

119 Citations

Semantic Scholar estimates that this publication has 119 citations based on the available data.

See our FAQ for additional information.

Cite this paper

@article{Zhang1993PipelinedPA, title={Pipelined processors and worst case execution times}, author={N. Zhang and Alan Burns and Mark Nicholson}, journal={Real-Time Systems}, year={1993}, volume={5}, pages={319-343} }