Pioneer Venus Spacecraft Design And Operation

@article{Nothwang1980PioneerVS,
  title={Pioneer Venus Spacecraft Design And Operation},
  author={George J. Nothwang},
  journal={IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing},
  year={1980},
  volume={GE-18},
  pages={5-10}
}
The Pioneer Venus Orbiter and Multiprobe spacecraft design and operation enabled both remote and in-situ measurements of the Venusian environment from the outermost fringes of the atmosphere all the way to the surface. Both spacecraft were spin-stabilized and solar-cell powered from launch to Venus. Since orbit insertion, the Orbiter has been transmitting measurements from a highly elliptical 24-h orbit with periapsis altitudes down to about 150 km. Data rates up to 2048 bits/s have been… CONTINUE READING