Pinniped taxonomy: review of currently recognized species and subspecies, and evidence used for their description

  title={Pinniped taxonomy: review of currently recognized species and subspecies, and evidence used for their description},
  author={Annalisa Berta and Morgan Churchill},
  journal={Mammal Review},
Pinnipeds are charismatic but difficult to study, and taxonomy is poorly under- stood. An accurate taxonomic framework is essential for studies of biogeography, ecology and conservation. 2. Morphologic and genetic criteria used to recognize pinniped species and subspe- cies are evaluated individually for all taxa in the three families: Otariidae (sea lions and fur seals), Odobenidae (walruses) and Phocidae (seals). We advocate a pragmatic approach that, in general, follows the Evolutionary… 

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