Pineal and ocular melatonin was assessed, over 24 h periods, in male lizards (Anolis carolinensis) entrained to 24 h light-dark (LD) cycles and a constant 32 ‡C, and in lizards entrained to both 24 h LD cycles and 24 h temperature cycles (32 ‡C/20 ‡C). At a constant temperature, the duration of the photoperiod has a profound effect on the duration, amplitude, and phase of the pineal melatonin rhythm (Fig. 1). The pineal melatonin rhythm under cyclic temperature peaks during the cool (20 ‡C) phase of the cycle regardless of whether or not the cool phase occurs during the light or dark phase of a LD 12∶12 cycle (Fig. 3). Under a temperature cycle and constant dim illumination, a pineal melatonin rhythm is observed which peaks during the cool phase of the temperature cycle, but the amplitude of the rhythm is depressed relative to that observed under LD (Fig. 2). Illumination up to 2 h in duration does not suppress the nocturnal melatonin peak in theAnolis pineal (Fig. 4). No melatonin rhythm was observed in the eyes ofAnolis under either 24 h LD cycles and a constant temperature (Fig. 1), or under simultaneous light and temperature cycles (Fig. 3). Ocular melatonin content was, in all cases, either very low or non-detectable.