Pine Bark Extracts: Nutraceutical, Pharmacological, and Toxicological Evaluation

@article{Li2015PineBE,
  title={Pine Bark Extracts: Nutraceutical, Pharmacological, and Toxicological Evaluation},
  author={Yingya Li and Jiao Feng and Xiaolu Zhang and Yingyu Cui},
  journal={The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics},
  year={2015},
  volume={353},
  pages={16 - 9}
}
Proanthocyanidins are among the most abundant constituents in pine bark extracts (PBEs). This review summarizes medical research on PBEs from Pinus pinaster, Pinus radiata, Pinus massoniana, and other less well characterized species. The precise mechanisms of the important physiologic functions of PBE components remain to be elucidated, but there is evidently great potential for the identification and development of novel antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, cardiovascular, neuroprotective, and… 
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The Potency of Nanoparticle of Pinus merkusii as Immunostimulatory on Male Wistar Albino Rat
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TLDR
Clinical studies describing the beneficial and health-promoting effects of PBE (French Pinus pinaster bark extract) are provided.
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TLDR
The results indicate that PMBE is a natural antioxidant that could potentially be used as a food supplement or as a candidate precursor substance for new anticancer therapeutics.
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An improvement in cognitive function has been observed in controlled animal experiments and these findings support anecdotal reports of improvement in ADHD patients taking PYC supplements, as well as much evidence showing that PYC has beneficial effects on physiological functions.
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TLDR
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TLDR
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TLDR
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TLDR
In this review, emphasizing the molecular, cellular, and functional bases of therapy, data appearing in the peer-reviewed literature and focussing the main therapeutic applications of pycnogenol will be summarized and critically evaluated.
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