Secretion of interferon gamma from human immune cells is altered by exposure to tributyltin and dibutyltin.
Raw and treated water samples and tap water samples from four to six houses located on distribution lines where PVC pipe/tubing had been recently installed were collected in five Canadian municipalities for the analysis of organotin compounds. After derivatisation with sodium tetraethylborate the ethylated organotin compounds were extracted with hexane and analysed by gas chromatography-microwave induced plasma atomic emission spectrometry using a wavelength (326.234 nm) specific for tin. Organotin compounds, mainly methyltin and dimethyltin at concentrations ranging respectively from 0.5 to 257 ng Sn/L and from 0.5 to 6.5 ng Sn/L, were detected in samples from ten of the twenty-two houses. No organotin compounds were detected in raw water or treated water leaving the treatment plant, indicating that the organotin compounds were leaching into the water from some component of the distribution system.