Picosecond imaging circuit analysis

@article{Tsang2000PicosecondIC,
  title={Picosecond imaging circuit analysis},
  author={James C. Tsang and Jeffrey A. Kash and David P. Vallett},
  journal={IBM Journal of Research and Development},
  year={2000},
  volume={44},
  pages={583-604}
}
A newly developed optical method for noninvasively measuring the switching activity of operating CMOS integrated circuit chips is described. The method, denoted as picosecond imaging circuit analysis (PICA) can be used to characterize the gate-level performance of such chips and identify the locations and nature of their operational faults. The principles underlying PICA and examples of its use are discussed. 
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