Serum paraoxonase 1 (PON1) has been reported to be an important contributor to the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of HDL, avoiding LDL oxidation. The activity of this enzyme is reduced in patients with renal insufficiency, caused by elevated oxidative stress and disturbances of apolipoprotein metabolism. Therapeutic utilization of antioxidants to control renal oxidative stress may be an effective therapy in renal protection. The aim was to investigate the protective effects of several antioxidant compounds against the oxidative stress associated to renal failure induced by ethylene glycol (EG), focusing on the possible role of serum PON1 activity. Fifty-four male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to six groups (n = 9): an untreated control (C) group, an EG-treated group, a catechin (CAT)-treated group, an epicatechin (EPI)-treated group, a quercetin (QUE)-treated group and a folk herbal extract (FHE)-treated group. After 16 d of treatment, calcium oxalate lithiasis was induced in the rats using EG. After eight days (treatment + EG), the animals were sacrificed. EG treatment impaired kidney composition, increased oxidative damage, and decreased serum paraoxonase and arylesterase activities. CAT, QUE and the FHE Fagolitos improved oxidative status by enhancing antioxidant defenses - superoxide dismutase and PON1 activities - and reducing oxidative damage, thus reinforcing the idea of a possible role of PON1 in the protective effects of QUE against the deleterious consequences of oxidative stress in kidney.