Phytoplankton Calcification in a High-CO2 World

  title={Phytoplankton Calcification in a High-CO2 World},
  author={Maria Debora Iglesias-Rodriguez and Paul R. Halloran and Rosalind E. M. Rickaby and Ian R. Hall and Elena Colmenero-Hidalgo and John R. Gittins and Darryl R. H. Green and Toby Tyrrell and Samantha J. Gibbs and Peter von Dassow and Eric Rehm and E. Virginia Armbrust and Karin Petra Boessenkool},
  pages={336 - 340}
Ocean acidification in response to rising atmospheric CO2 partial pressures is widely expected to reduce calcification by marine organisms. From the mid-Mesozoic, coccolithophores have been major calcium carbonate producers in the world's oceans, today accounting for about a third of the total marine CaCO3 production. Here, we present laboratory evidence that calcification and net primary production in the coccolithophore species Emiliania huxleyi are significantly increased by high CO2 partial… 
Marine calcifiers exhibit mixed responses to CO2-induced ocean acidification
The results suggest that the impact of elevated atmospheric p CO2 on marine calcification is more varied than previously thought.
Role of pelagic calcification and export of carbonate production in climate change
The marine carbon cycle constitutes a key component of the climate system. It has been shown that one-fourth of the anthropogenic CO2 emitted to the atmosphere is absorbed by the ocean, leading to
Calcification response of a key phytoplankton family to millennial-scale environmental change
A novel rationale for size-normalizing the mass of the calcite plates produced by the most abundant family of coccolithophores, the Noëlaerhabdaceae is described and applied, hypothesizing that this is the result of selection manifest in natural populations over millennial timescales, implying a positive climatic feedback.
Oceanography: Forecasting the rain ratio
By analysing both contemporary surface water samples and fossil sediment cores, Beaufort et al. show that an increase in dissolved CO2 causes a decrease in calcification rates, and that the abundance of heavily calcified coccolithophore morphotypes is dependent on carbonate chemistry.
Decrease in coccolithophore calcification and CO2 since the middle Miocene
Degree of calcification was highest in the low-pH, high-CO2 Miocene ocean, but decreased significantly between 6 and 4 Myr ago, and it is proposed that decreasing CO2 partly drove the observed trend via reduced cellular bicarbonate allocation to calcification.
Sensitivity of phytoplankton to future changes in ocean carbonate chemistry: current knowledge, contradictions and research directions
Despite their microscopic size, marine phytoplankton are responsible for about half of the global primary production and represent the basis of the marine food web. This diverse group of organisms
Long‐term evolutionary and ecological responses of calcifying phytoplankton to changes in atmospheric CO2
Calcifying phytoplankton play an important role in marine ecosystems and global biogeochemical cycles, affecting the transfer of both organic and inorganic carbon from the surface to the deep ocean.
Ocean acidification: the other CO2 problem.
The potential for marine organisms to adapt to increasing CO2 and broader implications for ocean ecosystems are not well known; both are high priorities for future research.
Development of a Continuous Phytoplankton Culture System for Ocean Acidification Experiments
Around one third of all anthropogenic CO2 emissions have been absorbed by the oceans, causing changes in seawater pH and carbonate chemistry. These changes have the potential to affect phytoplankton,
Sensitivity of pelagic calcification to ocean acidification
Abstract. Ocean acidification might reduce the ability of calcifying plankton to produce and maintain their shells of calcite, or of aragonite, the more soluble form of CaCO3. In addition to possibly


Decreasing marine biogenic calcification: A negative feedback on rising atmospheric pCO2
In laboratory experiments with the coccolithophore species Emiliania huxleyi and Gephyrocapsa oceanica, the ratio of particulate inorganic carbon (PIC) to particulate organic carbon (POC) production
Reduced calcification of marine plankton in response to increased atmospheric CO2
It is suggested that the progressive increase in atmospheric CO2 concentrations may slow down the production of calcium carbonate in the surface ocean, as the process of calcification releases CO2 to the atmosphere.
Impact of Anthropogenic CO2 on the CaCO3 System in the Oceans
The in situ CaCO3 dissolution rates for the global oceans from total alkalinity and chlorofluorocarbon data are estimated, and the future impacts of anthropogenic CO2 on Ca CO3 shell–forming species are discussed.
The future of the carbon cycle: review, calcification response, ballast and feedback on atmospheric CO2
  • S. Barker, J. Higgins, H. Elderfield
  • Environmental Science, Geography
    Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences
  • 2003
Evidence from corals, coccolithophores and foraminifera is reviewed, which suggests that the response of reduced calcification provides a negative feedback on rising atmospheric CO2, and a box model is used to demonstrate how the calcification response may affect the organic carbon rain rate through the ballast effect.
Species-specific responses of calcifying algae to changing seawater carbonate chemistry
Uptake of half of the fossil fuel CO2 into the ocean causes gradual seawater acidification. This has been shown to slow down calcification of major calcifying groups, such as corals, foraminifera,
Effect of deep-sea sedimentary calcite preservation on atmospheric CO2 concentration
DURING the last glaciation, the atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration was about 30% less than the Holocene pre-industrial value1. Although this change is thought to originate in oceanic
Response of coccolithophorid Emiliania huxleyi to elevated partial pressure of CO2 under nitrogen limitation
Results suggest that increasing pCO2 has no noticeable effect on the calcifica- tion/photosynthesis ratio (C /P) when cells of E. huxleyi are NO3-limited, and, in contrast to previous studies with N-replete cultures, gross community production (GCP) and dark community respiration (DCR) also decreased.
Geochemical consequences of increased atmospheric carbon dioxide on coral reefs
A coral reef represents the net accumulation of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) produced by corals and other calcifying organisms. If calcification declines, then reef-building capacity also declines.