Physiology and pathophysiology of carnosine.

@article{Boldyrev2013PhysiologyAP,
  title={Physiology and pathophysiology of carnosine.},
  author={Alexander A. Boldyrev and Giancarlo Aldini and Wim Derave},
  journal={Physiological reviews},
  year={2013},
  volume={93 4},
  pages={
          1803-45
        }
}
Carnosine (β-alanyl-l-histidine) was discovered in 1900 as an abundant non-protein nitrogen-containing compound of meat. The dipeptide is not only found in skeletal muscle, but also in other excitable tissues. Most animals, except humans, also possess a methylated variant of carnosine, either anserine or ophidine/balenine, collectively called the histidine-containing dipeptides. This review aims to decipher the physiological roles of carnosine, based on its biochemical properties. The latter… 

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