Physiology and pathophysiology of carnosine.

  title={Physiology and pathophysiology of carnosine.},
  author={Alexander A. Boldyrev and Giancarlo Aldini and Wim Derave},
  journal={Physiological reviews},
  volume={93 4},
Carnosine (β-alanyl-l-histidine) was discovered in 1900 as an abundant non-protein nitrogen-containing compound of meat. The dipeptide is not only found in skeletal muscle, but also in other excitable tissues. Most animals, except humans, also possess a methylated variant of carnosine, either anserine or ophidine/balenine, collectively called the histidine-containing dipeptides. This review aims to decipher the physiological roles of carnosine, based on its biochemical properties. The latter… 

Carnosine and Lung Disease.

The in vitro and in vivo biological and physiological actions of carnosine are described and the roles of Carnival or its related compounds in organs where carnosines is present in only small amounts are discussed and its protective mechanisms are discussed.

An update on carnosine and anserine research

There is a growing interest from the broad scientific community to unravel the fundamental properties as well as the potential application spectrum of carnosine and related dipeptides.

Carnosine and Kidney Diseases: What We Currently Know?

The results of experimental and human studies concerning the role of carnosine in kidney diseases, particularly in chronic kidney disease, ischemia/reperfusion induced acute renal failure, diabetic nephropathy and also drug-induced nephrotoxicity are summarized.

Carnosine, Small but Mighty—Prospect of Use as Functional Ingredient for Functional Food Formulation

The present review aimed to provide recent knowledge on carnosine properties and distribution, its metabolism (synthesis and degradation), and analytical methods for Carnosine determination, since one of the difficulties is the measurement of carnosines concentration in human samples.

Metabolismo de carnosina, suplementação de β-alanina e desempenho físico: uma atualização – PARTE I

Carnosine metabolism, β-alanine supplementation and performance: an update Part I The physiological role of carnosine has attracted recent interest, even though it is a substance studied for years.

Carnosine: A Possible Drug for Vascular Dementia

The roles of carnosine in VD and other neuro degenerative diseases are reviewed and perspectives about the future therapeutic use of this dipeptide are discussed.


Carnosine's antiglycation property, reactivity against harmful carbonyls, zinc and copper chelation activity, low toxicity, and its response to age-related protein carbonyl stres cause it to show disease-preventing and disease- preventing properties.

Histidine in Health and Disease: Metabolism, Physiological Importance, and Use as a Supplement

Of concern should be findings of hepatic enlargement and increases in ammonia and glutamine and of decrease in branched-chain amino acids in blood plasma indicating that HIS supplementation is inappropriate in patients with liver disease.

Ionophore Ability of Carnosine and Its Trehalose Conjugate Assists Copper Signal in Triggering Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Activation In Vitro

Overall, the findings describe a copper tuning effect on the ability of l-carnosine and, particularly its conjugate, to activate tyrosine kinase cascade pathways.

Protective activity of carnosine and anserine against zinc-induced neurotoxicity: a possible treatment for vascular dementia.

Carnosine and anserine protected against Zn-induced neurotoxicity not by preventing increases in intracellular Zn(2+) but by participating in the regulation of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathway and the activity-regulated cytoskeletal protein (Arc).



Carnosine and carnosine-related antioxidants: a review.

It has been recently demonstrated that carnosine is a potent and selective scavenger of alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes, typical by-products of membrane lipids peroxidation and considered second messengers of the oxidative stress, and inhibits aldehyde-induced protein-protein and DNA-protein cross-linking in neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, in cardiovascular ischemic damage, in inflammatory diseases.

Pluripotent Protective Effects of Carnosine, a Naturally Occurring Dipeptidea

It is proposed that carnosine or related structures should be explored for possible intervention in pathologies that involve deleterious aldehydes, for example, secondary diabetic complications, inflammatory phenomena, alcoholic liver disease, and possibly Alzheimer's disease.

Carnosine and its possible roles in nutrition and health.

  • A. Hipkiss
  • Biology
    Advances in food and nutrition research
  • 2009

Antioxidant activity of carnosine, homocarnosine, and anserine present in muscle and brain.

A role for these histidine-related compounds as endogenous antioxidants in brain and muscle is suggested by testing their peroxyl radical-trapping ability at physiological concentrations.

l-Carnosine, a Substrate of Carnosinase-1, Influences Glucose Metabolism

hCN1-dependent susceptibility to diabetic nephropathy may at least in part be mediated by altered glucose metabolism in type 2 diabetic patients.

On the enigma of carnosine’s anti-ageing actions

Carnosine, the anti-ageing, anti-oxidant dipeptide, may react with protein carbonyl groups

Carnosine protects proteins against methylglyoxal-mediated modifications.

Carnosine can inhibit protein modification induced by a lysine-MG-AGE; this suggests a second intervention site for carnosine and emphasizes its potential as a possible non-toxic modulator of diabetic complications.

Cardiovascular effects of carnosine.

Studies are reviewed which provide a basis for considering carnosine a modulator of calcium-regulated proteins in cardiac muscle cells and consequently an important determinant of contractility and cardiac function.