Physiology and pathophysiology of carnosine.

  title={Physiology and pathophysiology of carnosine.},
  author={Alexander A. Boldyrev and Giancarlo Aldini and Wim Derave},
  journal={Physiological reviews},
  volume={93 4},
Carnosine (β-alanyl-l-histidine) was discovered in 1900 as an abundant non-protein nitrogen-containing compound of meat. The dipeptide is not only found in skeletal muscle, but also in other excitable tissues. Most animals, except humans, also possess a methylated variant of carnosine, either anserine or ophidine/balenine, collectively called the histidine-containing dipeptides. This review aims to decipher the physiological roles of carnosine, based on its biochemical properties. The latter… 

Carnosine and Lung Disease.

The in vitro and in vivo biological and physiological actions of carnosine are described and the roles of Carnival or its related compounds in organs where carnosines is present in only small amounts are discussed and its protective mechanisms are discussed.

An update on carnosine and anserine research

There is a growing interest from the broad scientific community to unravel the fundamental properties as well as the potential application spectrum of carnosine and related dipeptides.

Carnosine and Kidney Diseases: What We Currently Know?

The results of experimental and human studies concerning the role of carnosine in kidney diseases, particularly in chronic kidney disease, ischemia/reperfusion induced acute renal failure, diabetic nephropathy and also drug-induced nephrotoxicity are summarized.

Carnosine, Small but Mighty—Prospect of Use as Functional Ingredient for Functional Food Formulation

The present review aimed to provide recent knowledge on carnosine properties and distribution, its metabolism (synthesis and degradation), and analytical methods for Carnosine determination, since one of the difficulties is the measurement of carnosines concentration in human samples.

Metabolismo de carnosina, suplementação de β-alanina e desempenho físico: uma atualização – PARTE I

Carnosine metabolism, β-alanine supplementation and performance: an update Part I The physiological role of carnosine has attracted recent interest, even though it is a substance studied for years.

Carnosine and Related Peptides: Therapeutic Potential in Age-Related Disorders.

In the present review, some evidences from clinical and basic studies for the utilization of ID as a drug therapy for age-related human disorders are discussed.

Carnosine Decreases PMA-Induced Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Murine Macrophages

A multimodal mechanism of action of carnosine is suggested underlying its beneficial effects on macrophage cells under oxidative stress and inflammation conditions, indicating a strong inhibitory effect of this molecule towards the main source of reactive oxygen species in macrophages.

Carnosinases, Their Substrates and Diseases

The structure and function of this class of enzymes in physiological and pathological conditions, i.e., carnosine, homocarnosine and anserine (β-alanyl-3-methyl-l-histidine) will be described.


Carnosine's antiglycation property, reactivity against harmful carbonyls, zinc and copper chelation activity, low toxicity, and its response to age-related protein carbonyl stres cause it to show disease-preventing and disease- preventing properties.

Protective activity of carnosine and anserine against zinc-induced neurotoxicity: a possible treatment for vascular dementia.

Carnosine and anserine protected against Zn-induced neurotoxicity not by preventing increases in intracellular Zn(2+) but by participating in the regulation of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathway and the activity-regulated cytoskeletal protein (Arc).



Pluripotent Protective Effects of Carnosine, a Naturally Occurring Dipeptidea

It is proposed that carnosine or related structures should be explored for possible intervention in pathologies that involve deleterious aldehydes, for example, secondary diabetic complications, inflammatory phenomena, alcoholic liver disease, and possibly Alzheimer's disease.

Carnosine and its possible roles in nutrition and health.

  • A. Hipkiss
  • Biology
    Advances in food and nutrition research
  • 2009

Antioxidant activity of carnosine, homocarnosine, and anserine present in muscle and brain.

A role for these histidine-related compounds as endogenous antioxidants in brain and muscle is suggested by testing their peroxyl radical-trapping ability at physiological concentrations.

l-Carnosine, a Substrate of Carnosinase-1, Influences Glucose Metabolism

hCN1-dependent susceptibility to diabetic nephropathy may at least in part be mediated by altered glucose metabolism in type 2 diabetic patients.

On the enigma of carnosine’s anti-ageing actions

Carnosine, the anti-ageing, anti-oxidant dipeptide, may react with protein carbonyl groups

Carnosine protects proteins against methylglyoxal-mediated modifications.

Carnosine can inhibit protein modification induced by a lysine-MG-AGE; this suggests a second intervention site for carnosine and emphasizes its potential as a possible non-toxic modulator of diabetic complications.

Cardiovascular effects of carnosine.

Studies are reviewed which provide a basis for considering carnosine a modulator of calcium-regulated proteins in cardiac muscle cells and consequently an important determinant of contractility and cardiac function.

A comparative study of synthetic carnosine analogs as antioxidants.