Physiology, Biochemistry, and Molecular Biology of Vertebrate Freeze Tolerance: The Wood Frog

@inproceedings{Storey2004PhysiologyBA,
  title={Physiology, Biochemistry, and Molecular Biology of Vertebrate Freeze Tolerance: The Wood Frog},
  author={Kenneth B. Storey and Janet M Storey},
  year={2004}
}
Geographical variation of freeze tolerance in the wood frog, Rana sylvatica: The role of hepatic glycogen metabolism
TLDR
Alaskan R. sylvatica have a series of adaptations that contribute to an overall an enhanced glucosic cryoprotectant system and, ultimately, to their extreme freeze tolerance.
Hepatic transcriptome of the freeze-tolerant Cope’s gray treefrog, Dryophytes chrysoscelis: responses to cold acclimation and freezing
TLDR
This study is the first to report transcriptomic responses to low temperature exposure in a freeze-tolerant vertebrate and several genes related to heat shock protein response, DNA repair, and the ubiquitin proteasome pathway were upregulated in cold and frozen frogs, whereas genes involved in responses to oxidative stress and anoxia were downregulated or unchanged.
Histone methylation in the freeze-tolerant wood frog (Rana sylvatica)
TLDR
Methylation of p53 was also tissue-specific, where no changes were seen in liver tissue; however, p53 in skeletal muscle was differentially methylated.
Characterization and physiological regulation of glucose transporter 2 in the liver of the wood frog, Rana sylvatica: Implications for freeze tolerance
TLDR
Results of this study suggest that hepatic GLUT2 is regulated to meet the physiological need to accumulate glucose.
Regulation of the Rana sylvatica brevinin-1SY antimicrobial peptide during development and in dorsal and ventral skin in response to freezing, anoxia and dehydration
TLDR
Environmental regulation of brevinin-1SY regulation during development and in adult frogs in response to environmental stress may have important implications for defense against pathogens.
Enzymatic Regulation of Glycogenolysis in a Subarctic Population of the Wood Frog: Implications for Extreme Freeze Tolerance
TLDR
Popularational variation in the activity and protein level of protein kinase A was found which suggested that the Alaskan population had a more efficient form of this enzyme, which may have potentiated glycogenolysis during early freezing.
Hibernation physiology, freezing adaptation and extreme freeze tolerance in a northern population of the wood frog
TLDR
Alaskan frogs differed from Ohioan frogs in retaining a substantial reserve capacity for glucose synthesis, accumulating high levels of cryoprotectants in brain tissue, and remaining hyperglycemic long after thawing.
Regulation of NF-kB and p53 in the liver and skeletal muscle of the freeze tolerant wood frog, rana sylvatica
TLDR
The activation of NF-KB antioxidant defenses in the wood frog during freezing in anticipation of reperfusion during thawing and the activation of p53 in the Wood frog which would lead to cell cycle arrest in the frozen state are suggested.
Urea loading enhances freezing survival and postfreeze recovery in a terrestrially hibernating frog
TLDR
Testing the hypothesis that urea functions as a cryoprotectant in the freeze-tolerant wood frog, Rana sylvatica, found individuals rendered hyperuremic by administration of an aqueous urea solution exhibited significantly higher survival following freezing at– 4°C, a potentially lethal temperature.
Cold-loving microbes, plants, and animals—fundamental and applied aspects
TLDR
The mechanisms of microorganisms, plants, and animals to cope with the cold and the resulting biotechnological perspectives are described.
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References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 130 REFERENCES
Freeze duration influences postfreeze survival in the frog Rana sylvatica.
TLDR
Augmenting endogenous levels of the cryoprotectant glucose (via injections) prior to freezing substantially increased freeze endurance of glucose-loaded frogs, as these frogs had excellent survival after remaining frozen for as long as 49 d.
Second messenger and cAMP-dependent protein kinase responses to dehydration and anoxia stresses in frogs
TLDR
The patterns of second messenger and PKAc changes in wood frog liver during dehydration closely parallel the changes seen in these same parameters during natural freezing suggesting that the freeze tolerance of selected terrestrially hibernating anurans may have evolved out of various anuran mechanisms of dehydration resistance.
Oxidative damage and antioxidants in Rana sylvatica, the freeze-tolerant wood frog.
TLDR
Correlative data showing increased activities of some antioxidant enzymes during freezing, as well as constitutively higher activities of antioxidant enzymes and higher levels of glutathione in the freeze-tolerant species compared with Rana pipiens, suggest that antioxidant defenses play a key role in amphibian freeze tolerance.
Exchange of water, ions and respiratory gases in terrestrial amphibians
A Physiological Basis for Prolonged Submergence in Hibernating Garter Snakes Thamnophis sirtalis: Evidence for an Energy-Sparing Adaptation
TLDR
Owing to metabolic, cardiovascular, and behavioral adjustments to submergence in cold water, garter snakes were able to remain in oxygen balance during winter; lactate analyses indicated that, in normoxic water, cutaneous diffusion of oxygen was adequate for aerobic metabolism.
Activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases during natural freezing and thawing in the wood frog
TLDR
Organ-specific responses by MAPKs, particularly p38, suggest that these may have roles in regulating metabolic or gene expression responses that may be adaptive in dealing with freezing stress or metabolic recovery during thawing.
Activation of multiple MAPK pathways (ERKs, JNKs, p38‐MAPK) by diverse stimuli in the amphibian heart
TLDR
The results indicate that the MAPK pathways activated by phorbol esters, hyperosmotic stress or anoxia/reoxygenation in the amphibian heart may have an important role in this experimental system.
Biochemical adaption for freezing tolerance in the wood frog,Rana sylvatica
TLDR
The wood frog,Rana sylvatica, can survice extracellular freezing during overwintering and appears to be confined to liver with glucose distributed through the blood to other tissues, while glycogen content of other tissues was not affected.
Effect of cooling rate on the survival of frozen wood frogs, Rana sylvatica
TLDR
It is concluded that slow cooling may be critical to the freeze tolerance of wood Frogs and that transient injury to the neuromuscular system was evident.
Effects of dehydration on organ metabolism in the frogPseudacris crucifer: hyperglycemic responses to dehydration mimic freezing-induced cryoprotectant production
TLDR
The hyperglycemic response of P. crucifer to dehydration mimics the cryoprotectant synthesis response seen during freezing of this freeze-tolerant frog, suggesting that these share a common regultory mechanism and that the cryolytic response may have arisen out of pre-existing volume regulatory responses of amphibians.
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