• Corpus ID: 38150972

Physiology, Balance, and Management of Horses During Transportation

  title={Physiology, Balance, and Management of Horses During Transportation},
  author={Carolyn L. Stull},
Horses throughout the ages have been transported for a variety of reasons including breeding, military endeavors, competitions, ceremonial proceedings, pleasure activities, biomedical purposes, and slaughter. Transformation of the modes in transporting horses has progressed from the utilization of boats or ships to move calvary horses, to conveying racehorses in vehicles drawn by other horses in the early 1800's, followed by railways until the 1920's. Motorized conveyances were developed in the… 
Transport stress in horses: Effects of two different distances
The present trial showed that adaptation to a new stall could be facilitated by offering horses food and fresh water when they arrive, and that for horses that must make a 3-hour journey before a race, it would be better to arrive at their destination at least 4 hours before beginning physical activity.
Thermoregulatory responses of horses subjected to summer-time road transport and stall confinement were investigated in this study. Six mature geldings were transported 168 km in a 4-horse trailer
Breeding soundness evaluation and reproductive management in Baldras sport horses
St Stallions were significantly older than the mares while mares were heavier with relatively poorer BCS and body weight was significantly correlated with girth both in mares and very poor freeze ability and fertility of fresh semen.
Effect of Road Transport on the Equine Cecal Microbiota
The effect of travel stress on equine cecal microbiota has not been well defined and multiple taxa affected by travel at both the genus and phylum level are identified.
The use of heart rate variability measurements as a non-invasive method of assessing affective state in horses
Domestic horses maintain many of their innate behavioural traits as a group-living, free-ranging herbivore that usually avoids predation by flight. Confinement, isolation, restraint, riding, training
Supplementation of Ascorbic Acid in Weanling Horses Following Prolonged Transportation
Though horses normally synthesize adequate amounts of ascorbic acid in their liver in amounts that meet their needs under normal circumstances, prolonged stress results in low plasma concentrations due to enhanced utilization and renal excretion and can reduce immune function.
Our Ethical and Moral Responsibility
Abstract From 1984 to 2014, the field of animal-assisted interventions (AAI) has grown tremendously. Many interdisciplinary professionals are now employing AAI in various settings with distinct
Sero-survey of equine infectious anemia in the Sultanate of Oman during 2007-2009.
This document is intended to provide a history of the music industry in the United States and some of the factors that led to its development and approval are described.


Effects of transporting horses facing either forwards or backwards on their behaviour and heart rate
The horses seemed to find being transported less physically stressful when they are facing backwards than when they were facing forwards, and there was no difference between transport facing forwards or backwards in terms of the peak unloading heart rate, or the average heart rate during loading or unloading.
Effect of body direction on heart rate in trailered horses.
To determine whether body direction in a trailer affects the degree to which a horse is excited (and presumably stressed) during transport, heart rates were measured in 8 Thoroughbred geldings
Influence of head posture on the respiratory tract of healthy horses.
The results suggest that keeping the heads of healthy horses raised leads to an increased bacterial burden in their tracheobronchial secretions, giving further weight to the theory that postural drainage may facilitate clearance of bacteria from the tracheo-bacterial tree.
Effects of transportation on early embryonic death in mares.
Incidence of early embryonic death (EED) and associated changes in serum cortisol, progesterone and plasma ascorbic acid in transported mares were investigated and post-transport decreases in concentrations of progester one were observed in mares that aborted.
Case-control study of risk factors for development of pleuropneumonia in horses.
Results indicated that Thoroughbreds were at a greater risk of developing pleuropneumonia than were other horses, and Standardbreds was at a reduced risk.
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