Physiological functions of glucocorticoids in stress and their relation to pharmacological actions.

@article{Munck1984PhysiologicalFO,
  title={Physiological functions of glucocorticoids in stress and their relation to pharmacological actions.},
  author={Allan U. Munck and Paul M. Guyre and Nikki J. Holbrook},
  journal={Endocrine reviews},
  year={1984},
  volume={5 1},
  pages={
          25-44
        }
}
Almost any kind of threat to homeostasis or stress will cause plasma glucocorticoid levels to rise. The increased levels have traditionally been ascribed the physiological function of enhancing the organism's resistance to stress, a role well recognized in glucocorticoid therapy. How the known physiological and pharmacological effects of glucocorticoids might accomplish this function, however, remains a mystery. A generalization that is beginning to emerge is that many of these effects may be… 
Glucocorticoid physiology, pharmacology and stress.
  • A. Munck, P. Guyre
  • Biology, Medicine
    Advances in experimental medicine and biology
  • 1986
TLDR
It is suggested that stress-induced increases in glucocorticoid levels protect not against the source of stress itself but rather against the body's normal reactions to stress, preventing those reactions from overshooting and themselves threatening homeostasis.
Homeostatic Regulation of Glucocorticoid Receptor Activity by Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1: From Physiology to Clinic
TLDR
Understanding how to fine-tune GR activity is crucial in the search for novel therapeutic strategies aimed at reducing GC-related side effects and effectively restoring homeostasis and its comprehension may provide new routes to develop novel therapeutic targets for effectively treating immune and inflammatory response.
Glucocorticoids and Lesion-Induced Plasticity
TLDR
It is postulated that when an elevated level of GC persists, then the catabolic effects of the steroid prevail with detrimental consequences for the organism, e.g., steroid diabetes, hypertension, myopathy, and cognitive disturbances.
MIF as a glucocorticoid-induced modulator of cytokine production
TLDR
The unexpected finding that low con-centrations of glucocorticoids induce rather than inhibit MIF production from macrophages is reported, identifying a unique counter-regulatory system that functions to control inflammatory and immune responses.
Glucocorticoid Effects on Immune Responses
Abstract Recent studies have brought additional clarity to the mechanisms by which glucocorticoid (GC) steroid hormones exert both suppressive and permissive effects on immune responses. Widely used
Glucocorticoid regulation of inflammation: The plot thickens
TLDR
This work has shown that the cytokine macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), while possessing pleiotropic pro-inflammatory properties, has been demonstrated to be glucocorticoid-inducible, and has the potential to explain key aspects of the biphasic regulation of inflammatory response by endogenous glucoc Corticoids.
Glucocorticoids: Extensive physiological actions modulated through multiple mechanisms of gene regulation
TLDR
The mechanisms of gene regulation by glucocorticoid hormones, which are capable of regulating differential gene transcription, within a physiological context are described, to shed light on how a single molecule that is capable of exerting such divergent effects is also capable of promoting such distinct responses in different target tissues.
Stress, Opioid Peptides, and Their Receptors
New concepts of stress developed as a result of recent research into the physiology, pharmacology, and molecular biology of the endogenous opioid peptides (EOPs). Several physiological and behavioral
How do glucocorticoids influence stress responses? Integrating permissive, suppressive, stimulatory, and preparative actions.
TLDR
This review considers recent findings regarding GC action and generates criteria for determining whether a particular GC action permits, stimulates, or suppresses an ongoing stress-response or, as an additional category, is preparative for a subsequent stressor.
Glucocorticoids, epigenetic control and stress resilience
TLDR
It is described that, possibly through changes in the GABAergic system, exercise reduces the impact of stress on a signaling pathway specifically in the dentate gyrus that is strongly implicated in the behavioral response to that stressor.
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 69 REFERENCES
Glucocorticoid Inhibition of Glucose Uptake by Peripheral Tissues: Old and New Evidence, Molecular Mechanisms, and Physiological Significance
  • A. Munck
  • Medicine
    Perspectives in biology and medicine
  • 1971
TLDR
The widely accepted view that stimulation of hepatic gluconeogenesis from amino acids accounts satisfactorily for most of the observed effects of glucocorticoids on carbohydrate metabolism emerged during the 1930s from the work ofitton and Silvette.
Synergistic interactions of physiologic increments of glucagon, epinephrine, and cortisol in the dog: a model for stress-induced hyperglycemia.
To evaluate the role of anti-insulin hormone actions and interactions in the pathogenesis of stress-induced hyperglycemia, the counterregulatory hormones, glucagon, epinephrine, and cortisol were
Network of immune-neuroendocrine interactions.
In order to bring the self-regulated immune system into conformity with other body systems its functioning within the context of an immune-neuroendocrine network is proposed. This hypothesis is based
THE RELATIONSHIP OF THE ADRENAL GLANDS TO DISEASES OF ADAPTATION
TLDR
Line of evidence can be interpreted as supporting the Selye (1956) concept of the role of the adrenal cortices in the aetiology of the "adaptation disease" when linked with the information that many stressful situations cause at least a temporary increase in the secretory activity of the Adrenal Cortices.
Macrophage plasminogen activator: Modulation of enzyme production by anti-inflammatory steroids, mitotic inhibitors, and cyclic nucleotides
TLDR
The potential roles of plasminogen activator in monocyte migration and the relationship of this enzyme to the anti-inflammatory effect of gluccorticoids are correlated and emphasized.
Changes in Blood Hormone Levels during the Immune Response
TLDR
These findings while admittedly preliminary, suffice to provide an indication of a temporal pattern of hormonal change during the immune response which could be important in immunoregulation.
Glucocorticoids inhibit endorphin synthesis by pituitary cells
TLDR
Data is described suggesting a direct inhibitory role of glucocorticoids in the synthesis of endorphins by pituitary cells, which is similar to that shown for dexamethasone after adrenalectomy.
The effect of a hormone of the adrenal cortex (17-hydroxy-11-dehydrocorticosterone; compound E) and of pituitary adrenocorticotropic hormone on rheumatoid arthritis.
TLDR
Clinical results accompanied by various biochemical effects were obtained from the administration of the pituitary adrenocorticotrophic hormone to two patients and the disease generally relapsed promptly.
Corticotropin releasing activity of the new CRF is potentiated several times by vasopressin
TLDR
It is reported here that the new CRF is more potent than vasopressin in releasing ACTH and potentiation of CRF activity with steep dose–response characteristics was observed, suggesting that thenew CRF does not account for all the non-vasopressIn portion of the CRF complex.
Dynamics of cortisol and endorphin responses to graded doses of synthetic ovine CRF in sheep.
TLDR
Ovine CRF is an extremely potent and rapidly-acting hypothalamic peptide in vivo when assayed in a homologous system and did not increase the magnitude of the peak iB-E response but did prolong the duration of the plasma beta-endorphin rise.
...
1
2
3
4
5
...