Physiological constraints and energetic costs of diving behaviour in marine mammals: a review of studies using trained Steller sea lions diving in the open ocean

  title={Physiological constraints and energetic costs of diving behaviour in marine mammals: a review of studies using trained Steller sea lions diving in the open ocean},
  author={David A. S. Rosen and Allyson G. Hindle and Carling D. Gerlinsky and Elizabeth T. Goundie and Gordon D. Hastie and Beth L. Volpov and Andrew W. Trites},
  journal={Journal of Comparative Physiology B},
Marine mammals are characterized as having physiological specializations that maximize the use of oxygen stores to prolong time spent under water. However, it has been difficult to undertake the requisite controlled studies to determine the physiological limitations and trade-offs that marine mammals face while diving in the wild under varying environmental and nutritional conditions. For the past decade, Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) trained to swim and dive in the open ocean away… 

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