Physiological and performance adaptations to high-intensity interval training.

  title={Physiological and performance adaptations to high-intensity interval training.},
  author={Martin J. Gibala and Andrew M. Jones},
  journal={Nestle Nutrition Institute workshop series},
High-intensity interval training (HIIT) refers to exercise that is characterized by relatively short bursts of vigorous activity, interspersed by periods of rest or low-intensity exercise for recovery. In untrained and recreationally active individuals, short-term HIIT is a potent stimulus to induce physiological remodeling similar to traditional endurance training despite a markedly lower total exercise volume and training time commitment. As little as six sessions of 'all-out' HIIT over 14… 

Physiological and Health-Related Adaptations to Low-Volume Interval Training: Influences of Nutrition and Sex

Both low-volume SIT and HIIT constitute relatively time-efficient training strategies to rapidly enhance the capacity for aerobic energy metabolism and elicit physiological remodeling that resembles changes normally associated with high-volume MICT.

Evidence-Based Effects of High-Intensity Interval Training on Exercise Capacity and Health: A Review with Historical Perspective

A brief history of high-intensity interval training is presented, based on the novel findings of some selected studies on exercise capacity and health, starting from the early 1920s to date, and an overview of the mechanisms underlying the physiological adaptations in response to high- intensity interval training are provided.

Military Applicability of Interval Training for Health and Performance

Although interval training can elicit physiological changes in men and women, the potential for sex-specific adaptations in the adaptive response to interval training warrants further investigation.

Comparison of training responses and performance adaptations in endurance-trained men and women performing high-intensity interval training

Although HIIT improved cycling performance in men and women, it might not be appropriate to evaluate the effectiveness of HIIT using the same variables for both sexes.

Physiological Response to Non-Traditional High-Intensity Interval Training

The measured values of muscle tissue oxidation, carbon dioxide output, heart rate confirm that a similar type of load can be a suitable means of affecting cardiovascular and metabolic functions.

Hemodynamic Adaptations Induced by Short-Term Run Interval Training in College Students

RIT could be an alternative model of training to diminish health-related risk factors in undergraduate college students and lowered HRrest and DP in the absence of appreciable BC and VO2max changes.

Effects of High-Intensity Interval Training vs. Sprint Interval Training on Anthropometric Measures and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Healthy Young Women

Eight weeks of HIIT and SIT resulted in improvements in anthropometric measures and cardiorespiratory fitness, even in the absence of changes in dietary intake, and both protocols appear to be time-efficient interventions.

Limitations in intense exercise performance of athletes – effect of speed endurance training on ion handling and fatigue development

An overview of the effect of SET is provided and potential mechanisms underlying enhancements in performance induced by SET in already well‐trained individuals with special emphasis on ion handling in skeletal muscle are discussed.


Short and long term high intensity interval training promoted better performance in the Cooper Test, raising the importance of this training strategy to improve the aerobic endurance in young adults.



The Scientific Basis for High-Intensity Interval Training

It seems that, for athletes who are already trained, improvements in endurance performance can be achieved only through high-intensity interval training (HIT) and investigation into the optimal HIT programme for eliciting performance enhancements in highly trained athletes is required.

Training for intense exercise performance: high‐intensity or high‐volume training?

  • P. Laursen
  • Education
    Scandinavian journal of medicine & science in sports
  • 2010
A polarized approach to training, whereby ∼75% of total training volume is performed at low intensities, and 10–15% is performedat very high intensities is suggested as an optimal training intensity distribution for elite athletes who perform intense exercise events.

Similar metabolic adaptations during exercise after low volume sprint interval and traditional endurance training in humans

Given the markedly lower training volume in the SIT group, these data suggest that high‐intensity interval training is a time‐efficient strategy to increase skeletal muscle oxidative capacity and induce specific metabolic adaptations during exercise that are comparable to traditional ET.

Short‐term sprint interval versus traditional endurance training: similar initial adaptations in human skeletal muscle and exercise performance

Data demonstrate that SIT is a time‐efficient strategy to induce rapid adaptations in skeletal muscle and exercise performance that are comparable to ET in young active men.

Skeletal muscle buffering capacity and endurance performance after high-intensity interval training by well-trained cyclists

The results indicate that βm may be an important determinant of relatively short-duration (< 60 min) endurance cycling activity and responds positively to just six sessions of high-intensity, submaximal interval training.

Improved athletic performance in highly trained cyclists after interval training.

Results indicate that a 4-wk program of HIT increased the PPO and fatigue resistance of competitive cyclists and improved their 40-km time trial performances.

Training Techniques to Improve Endurance Exercise Performances

It is found that a 50% single-step reduction in HIT at 70% of Wpeak produced peak 6% improvements in simulated 100km time-trial performances after 2 weeks, suggesting that the optimum taper depends on the intensity of the athletes’ preceding training and their need to recover from exhaustive exercise to compete.

A practical model of low‐volume high‐intensity interval training induces mitochondrial biogenesis in human skeletal muscle: potential mechanisms

It is demonstrated that a practical model of low volume HIT is a potent stimulus for increasing skeletal muscle mitochondrial capacity and improving exercise performance and suggested that increases in SIRT1, nuclear PGC‐1α, and Tfam may be involved in coordinating mitochondrial adaptations in response to HIT in human skeletal muscle.

Training techniques to improve fatigue resistance and enhance endurance performance.

The physiological factors associated with successful endurance performance are identified, and the results of investigations on competitive endurance cyclists which examined the time-course of changes in performance in response to a sustained, high-intensity interval training programme are summarized.

Effect of short-term sprint interval training on human skeletal muscle carbohydrate metabolism during exercise and time-trial performance.

It is concluded that short-term SIT improved cycling TT performance and resulted in a closer matching of glycogenolytic flux and pyruvate oxidation during submaximal exercise.