Physiological and behavioral adaptations in bats living at high latitudes

@article{Boyles2016PhysiologicalAB,
  title={Physiological and behavioral adaptations in bats living at high latitudes},
  author={Justin G. Boyles and Liam P. McGuire and Esmarie Boyles and J P Reimer and Christopher A.C. Brooks and Robert W. Rutherford and Teresa A. Rutherford and John O. Whitaker and Gary F McCracken},
  journal={Physiology \& Behavior},
  year={2016},
  volume={165},
  pages={322-327}
}
Daily torpor reduces the energetic consequences of habitat selection for a widespread bat
TLDR
This work quantifies the relationship between ambient temperature and daily duration of torpor, simulated daily energy expenditure over a range of microhabitat (roost) temperatures, and quantified the influence of roost temperature on roost selection.
Universality of Torpor Expression in Bats
TLDR
It is highlighted that torpor metabolic rates and skin temperature patterns of bats outside of the hibernation season can be universal across vastly different habitats, although arid environments indicate potential divergence in mean minimum torpor metabolism rates compared with measurements of populations inhabiting other climate zones.
Energetics of migratory bats during stopover: a test of the torpor-assisted migration hypothesis
TLDR
Support is provided for the torpor-assisted migration hypothesis, and the understanding of the energy budgets of migratory bats is further understood, finding that daily energy expenditure was independent of roosting temperature, and that this was achieved by flexible use of torpor.
What they do in the shadows : stable isotope analysis reveal that spatial and temporal heterogeneity explain dietary niche variation in Myotis lucifugus in Newfoundland
TLDR
Stable isotope analysis on feces, arthropods, and hair collected from known individuals across two timescales revealed that diets of individual bats were opportunistic, with strong dependence on the most abundant prey groups, although diets of most individuals contained a limited amount of all prey groups.
LITTLE BROWN MYOTIS ACTIVITY PATTERNS IN SOUTH-CENTRAL ALASKA
Abstract In this study, we investigated how Little Brown Myotis (Myotis lucifugus), North America's northernmost bat species, adjusted to variable spring and autumn conditions and very little
Life in a northern town: rural villages in the boreal forest are islands of habitat for an endangered bat
Urban development is detrimental to many wildlife species; however, endangered little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) may be attracted to human settlements, making them a synurbic species. Buildings
Cold hardiness and deacclimation of overwintering Papilio zelicaon pupae.
Testing the “Fasting While Foraging” Hypothesis: Effects of Recent Feeding on Plasma Metabolite Concentrations in Little Brown Bats (Myotis lucifugus)
Plasma metabolite concentrations can be used to understand nutritional status and foraging behavior across ecological contexts including prehibernation fattening, migration refueling, and variation
The energetics of mosquito feeding by insectivorous bats
TLDR
Using bomb calorimetry to determine the energetic content of mosquitoes from Alaska and Illinois, USA, and compared resulting estimates to daily energy expenditure of several bat species found mosquitoes were energetically comparable with other insects, however, an individual mosquito contains little energy.
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References

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Energy availability influences microclimate selection of hibernating bats
TLDR
The results suggest that fat-storing bats minimize torpor expression using both physiological and behavioral mechanisms, and predicted that individuals with small energy reserves would select colder temperatures for hibernation in order to minimize energy expenditure, while individuals with largerEnergy reserves would choose warmer temperatures to minimize the costs of hibernation.
Distributional Limits of Bats in Alaska
TLDR
Climate, roost availability, extent of forested habitat, geographic barriers, length of night, and prey abundance appear to influence the distribution of bats in Alaska, although the relative contribution of these factors is unknown.
Sex differences in the use of daily torpor and foraging time by big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) during the reproductive season
TLDR
The hypothesis that the fitness costs of using torpor are lower for males than for reproductive females and that males regularly use torpor as an energy-saving mechanism is supported.
Activity patterns of insectivorous bats and birds in northern Scandinavia (69° N), during continuous midsummer daylight
TLDR
Bat activity was most closely correlated to ambient light levels, and the low densities of both sand martins and Northern bats in the study area were less consistent with this hypothesis, which raised two alternative explanations that the authors could not eliminate.
FORAGING DISTANCES AND HOME RANGE OF PREGNANT AND LACTATING LITTLE BROWN BATS (MYOTIS LUCIFUGUS)
TLDR
It is argued that their high mass-specific milk production forces lactating females to nurse at night, which in turn imposes a constraint on foraging distances, and so the shift to a smaller home range is probably facilitated by the concomitant increase in insect biomass during the July lactation period.
Occurrence of bats in northernmost Sweden (65°N) and their feeding ecology in summer
The population density of the northern bat Eptesicus nilssoni at 65° N was about one-fifth of that in southern Sweden (57° N). No other bat species was observed at 65° N. In one maternity colony,
The Role of Energy Availability in Mammalian Hibernation: A Cost‐Benefit Approach
TLDR
It is suggested that trade‐offs between the benefits of energy conservation and the physiological costs of metabolic depression can explain both why hibernators periodically arouse from torpor and why they should use available energy to minimize the depth and duration of their torpor bouts.
Thermal physiology of pregnant and lactating female and male long-eared bats, Nyctophilus geoffroyi and N. gouldi
TLDR
Under identical thermal conditions, thermal physiology of pregnant and lactating female and male bats are indistinguishable, which suggests that the observed reluctance by reproductive females to enter torpor in the field is predominantly because of ecological rather than physiological differences, which reflect the fact that females roost gregariously whereas male bats typically roost solitarily.
The tradeoff between torpor use and reproduction in little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus)
TLDR
It is found that individuals, regardless of reproductive condition, used torpor, but the patterns of torpor use varied significantly between reproductive (pregnant and lactating) females and post-lactating females, and foraging behaviour of radio-tagged bats did not vary with reproductive condition.
Torpor during reproduction in mammals and birds: dealing with an energetic conundrum.
TLDR
Current knowledge about those heterothermic mammals that do not express torpor during reproduction are summarized and, in contrast, thoseheterothermic birds and mammal species that do use torporDuring reproduction are examined.
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