Physiological Changes Associated with the Menstrual Cycle: A Review

@article{Farage2009PhysiologicalCA,
  title={Physiological Changes Associated with the Menstrual Cycle: A Review},
  author={Miranda A. Farage and Sallie M. Neill and Allan B. Maclean},
  journal={Obstetrical \& Gynecological Survey},
  year={2009},
  volume={64},
  pages={58-72}
}
The cyclic hormonal changes that regulate the menstrual cycle are a significant biological influence on the female body, one with both physical and emotional ramifications. Menstruation is governed by tightly orchestrated changes in the levels of ovarian estrogen and progesterone, which produce varying responses in diverse tissues and organs. The skin, the largest organ in the body, is replete with estrogen receptors (in both dermis and epidermis) and to a lesser extent, progesterone receptors… 
Cognitive, sensory, and emotional changes associated with the menstrual cycle: a review
TLDR
The ability of reproductive hormones to impact psychoneurological processes involves the interplay of several body systems, lending credibility to the view of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) as a disorder founded in real biochemical disturbances.
The menstrual cycle and the skin
TLDR
The current understanding of the menstrual cycle, and its effect on the skin and cutaneous disorders is described.
Impact of Aging on Steroid Hormone Biosynthesis and Secretion
TLDR
The effects of aging on steroid synthesis and secretion by the adrenal gland and gonads of both human and experimental animal models are summarized, the potential involvement of excessive oxidative stress in mediating age-related alterations in steroidogenesis is described, and the possible underlying mechanisms involved are discussed.
Neuropéptide Y, anti-mullerian and reproductive hormones and their relationship with vasomotor symptoms in menopausal transition
TLDR
The TM begins with the variation in the duration of the menstrual cycle caused by the elevation in concentrations of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and ends with the final menstrual period.
Sex hormones in the modulation of irritable bowel syndrome.
TLDR
Significant differences between IBS female and male patients regarding symptomatology and comorbidity with other chronic pain syndromes and psychiatric disorders, together with differences in efficacy of serotonergic medications in IBS patients confirm the necessity for more sex-tailored therapeutic approach in this disorder.
Sex difference in irritable bowel syndrome: do gonadal hormones play a role?
  • A. Mulak, Y. Taché
  • Medicine, Biology
    Gastroenterologia Polska : organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Gastroenterologii
  • 2010
TLDR
Sex differences in the biological actions, pharmacokinetics, and treatment efficacy of serotonergic medications clearly suggest sex differences in pain pathways that have to be taken into consideration in therapeutic interventions.
OBJECTIVE EVALUATION OF CARDIAC AUTONOMIC ACTIVITY IN DIFFERENT PHASES OF MENSTRUAL CYCLE
TLDR
Comparing the cardiac autonomic activity in the different phases of menstrual cycle using heart rate variability and power spectral analysis of HRV concluded regulation of autonomic tone is modified during menstrual cycle.
Signaling pathways and stem cells in uterus and fallopian tubes
TLDR
The role of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in relation to steroid hormone signaling and the balance between proliferation and differentiation was investigated and since the consequence of hormone signaling in the endometrium is tissue degradation followed by regeneration, the role of stem cells was investigated.
The Menstrual Cycle-Response and Developmental Affective-Risk Model: A Multilevel and Integrative Model of Influence
  • J. Kiesner
  • Psychology, Biology
    Psychological review
  • 2017
An integrative developmental model is presented in which menstrual cycle-related symptoms are hypothesized to result in a cascade of developmental challenges that contribute to increased affective
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 100 REFERENCES
Effect of systemic hormonal cyclicity on skin.
TLDR
Skin was driest between day 1 and day 6, while skin surface lipid secretion appeared to be highest on days 16-20 of the hormonal cycle, and there was a high UV-B susceptibility between days 20 and 28 of the menstrual cycle.
Cognitive, sensory, and emotional changes associated with the menstrual cycle: a review
TLDR
The ability of reproductive hormones to impact psychoneurological processes involves the interplay of several body systems, lending credibility to the view of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) as a disorder founded in real biochemical disturbances.
Estrogen and skin: the effects of estrogen, menopause, and hormone replacement therapy on the skin.
Microvascular effects of corticotropin-releasing hormone in human skin vary in relation to estrogen concentration during the menstrual cycle.
TLDR
Data suggest the variation in CRH-induced dilation in the skin microvasculature during the menstrual cycle may be due to estrogenic effects on mast cell function and not due to direct changes in endothelial cell function.
Hormone replacement therapy and the skin.
Effects of gonadal steroids on vascular function.
TLDR
It is becoming apparent that modulation of vascular function by sex steroid hormones involves complex interactions and continued progress in understanding how hormones modulate vascular function will depend, in part, on clearer interpretation of data relative to the particular conditions of each experiment.
Estrogens and the skin
TLDR
The literature review demonstrated a wide array of research ranging from basic science work to clinical implications of the effects of the menopause and its treatment on the skin, and it is suggested that hormone replacement therapy (HRT) may play a beneficial role in cutaneous injury repair.
Biology of estrogens in skin: implications for skin aging
TLDR
Although systemic hormone replacement therapy (HRT) has been used for many years, recent trials have reported a significant increased risk of breast cancer and other pathologies with this treatment, and this has led to reconsider the risks and benefits of HRT.
Changes in skin blood flow during the menstrual cycle: the influence of the menstrual cycle on the peripheral circulation in healthy female volunteers.
TLDR
Skin and forearm blood flow during the natural changes in hormone levels which occur during the menstrual cycle is studied to investigate the possible contribution of sex hormones to these differences.
...
...