Physics of adherent cells

  title={Physics of adherent cells},
  author={Ulrich S. Schwarz and Shmuel Safran},
  journal={Reviews of Modern Physics},
properties of cells and their physical environment. Here we review recent progress in our understanding of the role of forces in cell adhesion from the viewpoint of theoretical soft matter physics and in close relation to the relevant experiments. 

Dynamics of Deformable Active Particles

In this review we discuss the dynamics of deformable active particles mainly from the theoretical point of view. Fluid droplets in a surfactant solution undergo translational motion under certain c...

Cellular mechanosensing: Sharing the force.

A combination of experiments and computer simulations shows how forces applied to the cell cortex are synergistically shared by motor proteins and crosslinkers.

Cytoskeletal Anisotropy Controls Geometry and Forces of Adherent Cells.

This work uses a combination of theoretical work and experiments on micropillar arrays to demonstrate that the shape of the cell edge is accurately described by elliptical arcs, whose eccentricity expresses the degree of anisotropy of the internal cell stresses.

The bioenergetics of integrin-based adhesion, from single molecule dynamics to stability of macromolecular complexes

Macroscopic Model of Substrate-Based Cell Motility

Motility dysfunction is also involved in cancer growth, especially during metastasis, and is a fascinating example of a self-organized and self-propelled system within the realm of physics.

A phenomenological cohesive model for the macroscopic simulation of cell–matrix adhesions

This model enables the simulation of the mechanical adhesion between cell and extracellular matrix (ECM) as regulated by local multidirectional forces and thus predicts the onset and growth of the adhesion.

Contour Models of Cellular Adhesion.

  • L. Giomi
  • Biology
    Advances in experimental medicine and biology
  • 2019
This chapter provides a general overview of contour models of cellular adhesion and review the specific cases of cells equipped with isotropic and anisotropic actin cytoskeleton as well as the role of bending elasticity.

Living Matter: Mesoscopic Active Materials

An introduction to the fundamental concepts and theory with selected experimental examples related to the authors’ own research is presented, including red‐blood‐cell membrane fluctuations, motion of the nucleus within an egg cell, self‐contracting acto‐myosin gels, and structure and beating of heart cells (cardiomyocytes), including how they can be driven by an oscillating, mechanical probe.

Shape regulation generates elastic interaction between living cells

This work model cells as spherical active force dipoles surrounded by an infinite elastic matrix, and analytically evaluate the interaction energy for different scenarios of their regulatory behavior, which results in attraction for homeostatic forces and repulsion forHomeostatic displacements.

Modeling cell-substrate de-adhesion dynamics under fluid shear

This work investigates, theoretically and experimentally, the detachment of cells adhered to substrates when these cells are subjected to fluid shear, and presents a theoretical framework within which this fraction of detached cells is calculated as a function of shear stress for fast ramps as well as the decay in this fraction at fixedShear stress as afunction of time.



Soft matters in cell adhesion: rigidity sensing on soft elastic substrates.

The physical scales of living cells which follow from simple scaling arguments developed in soft matter physics are discussed and the way cells sense and react to extracellular stiffness as revealed by recent experiments with soft elastic substrates is discussed.

Effect of poisson ratio on cellular structure formation.

This work shows analytically that due to screening, the effective interaction between strings decays exponentially, with a decay length determined only by geometry, and predicts novel phase transitions from paraelastic to ferroelastic and antiferroelastics phases as a function of the Poisson ratio.

Mechanical regulation of cell function with geometrically modulated elastomeric substrates

It is demonstrated that micropost rigidity impacts cell morphology, focal adhesions, cytoskeletal contractility and stem cell differentiation, and early changes in cytoskeleton contractility predicted later stem cell fate decisions in single cells.

Rigidity sensing explained by active matter theory.

Theoretical concepts and models of cellular mechanosensing.

Physical determinants of cell organization in soft media.

Dissipative interactions in cell–matrix adhesion

There is a need to overcome this imbalance and to reveal the impact of dissipative processes in cell–matrix interaction, which is currently heavily addressed in biophysical and biomaterials science.

Dynamics and morphology of microvilli driven by actin polymerization.

  • N. Gov
  • Biology
    Physical review letters
  • 2006
This work model these structures as arising from the balance between the force of actin polymerization and the restoring force of the membrane and describes the phase diagram and the resulting morphology of the microvilli aggregates on the cell surface.

Optical rheology of biological cells.

The symmetric geometry of suspended cells ensures minimal statistical variability in their viscoelastic properties in contrast with adherent cells and thus is defining for different cell types.

Mechanotransduction at a distance: mechanically coupling the extracellular matrix with the nucleus

The molecular mechanisms by which forces might act at a distance to induce mechanochemical conversion in the nucleus and alter gene activities are explored.