Physics of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Devices and Their History.

@article{Truong2018PhysicsOT,
  title={Physics of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Devices and Their History.},
  author={Dennis Quangvinh Truong and Marom Bikson},
  journal={The journal of ECT},
  year={2018},
  volume={34 3},
  pages={
          137-143
        }
}
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) devices apply direct current through electrodes on the scalp with the intention to modulate brain function for experimental or clinical purposes. All tDCS devices include a current controlled stimulator, electrodes that include a disposable electrolyte, and headgear to position the electrodes on the scalp. Transcranial direct current stimulation dose can be defined by the size and position of electrodes and the duration and intensity of current… 

Electric Fields Induced in the Brain by Transcranial Electric Stimulation: A Review of In Vivo Recordings

Current tDCS- and tACS-induced electric fields estimations as they are recorded in humans and non-human primates using intracerebral electrodes are reviewed.

Noninvasive Electrical Brain Stimulation of the Central Nervous System

The evidence for tES use across varied clinical applications, spanning treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders and neurorehabilitation following injury, as well as a tool to change cognition and behavior in healthy individuals is developing.

A Computational Analysis of the Electric Field Components in Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation

A general trend is confirmed in the distribution of tangential and normal E-fields on gyri and sulci areas, respectively, partially independent of electrode configuration, for various electrode montages commonly used in clinical applications.

A Computational Parcellated Brain Model for Electric Field Analysis in Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation

This chapter offers a summary of recent works which have studied the effect of simulated EF magnitude and orientation in tDCS, as well as providing new results derived from an anatomically representative parcellated brain model based on finite element method (FEM).

Tele-monitored tDCS rehabilitation: feasibility, challenges and future perspectives in Parkinson’s disease

The implementation of tele-monitored tDCS (tele-tDCS) within standardized frameworks ensuring safety, tolerability, and reproducibility may allow this technology to reach larger clinical populations and bypass some of the common barriers preventing access to health services and clinical trials.

Adaptive current tDCS up to 4 mA

Electroencephalographic analysis of brain activity after interventions with transcranial direct current stimulation over the motor cortex: a systematic review

There is inconsistency in the processes and procedures used for the acquisition of brain signals, even when limiting the search to clinical trials offering an analysis of evaluations performed before and after clinical interventions.

Beyond the target area: an integrative view of tDCS-induced motor cortex modulation in patients and athletes

This study presents the use and perspectives of new developments in tDCS technology, namely high-definition tDCS (HD-tDCS) which promises to overcome one of the main tDCS limitation (i.e., low focality) and its application for neurological disease, pain relief, and motor learning/rehabilitation.

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 137 REFERENCES

Spatial and polarity precision of concentric high-definition transcranial direct current stimulation (HD-tDCS)

Using a range of concentric HD-tDCS montages, it is shown that cortical region of influence can be controlled while balancing other design factors such as intensity at the target and uni-directionality, which can provide categorical improvements in targeting compared to conventional tDCS.

Optimization of focality and direction in dense electrode array transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS)

The analysis of the interaction between optimized stimulus patterns and safety constraint bounds suggests that more precise current localization in the ROI, with improved safety criterion, may be achieved by careful selection of the constraint bounds.

Optimized multi-electrode stimulation increases focality and intensity at target

If a target location and stimulation orientation can be defined by the clinician, then the proposed technique is superior in terms of both focality and intensity as compared to previous solutions and is thus expected to translate into improved patient safety and increased clinical efficacy.

Electrode Positioning and Montage in Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation

Different alternatives for electrode placement for tDCS clinical trials on pain are shown, discussing advantages and disadvantages of each method of stimulation.

Shaping the effects of transcranial direct current stimulation of the human motor cortex.

Increased focality of tDCS might improve the interpretation of the functional effects of stimulation because it will restrict its effects to more clearly defined cortical areas, and such paradigms may help to achieve more selective tDCS effects.

Technique and Considerations in the Use of 4x1 Ring High-definition Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (HD-tDCS)

The purpose of this article is to systematically describe 4x1 HD-tDCS use for M1 stimulation, as well as the considerations to be taken for safe and effective stimulation.

Safety parameter considerations of anodal transcranial Direct Current Stimulation in rats

Comparison of cephalic and extracephalic montages for Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation - A numerical study

Modeling of conventional and alternative electrode montages via the Finite Element Method (FEM) has been utilized to provide insight into tDCS montage performance, and accurate simulations using a high definition, anatomically correct female human model based on the Visible Human Project dataset have given evidence that extracephalic cathode locations provide deeper stimulation of the primary motor cortex than the traditional cephalIC electrode montage.
...