Physics Today.

  title={Physics Today.},
  author={J N Howard},
  journal={Applied optics},
  volume={5 6},
Visualizing electronic orbitals. The image of an atom is really the image of the averaged likelihood that the electrons will be at various places. Physicists at Arizona State University have now imaged the cloud of bonding electrons in copper oxide and shown that they look just the drawings used for decades in quantum physics textbooks. Using a combination of x-ray diffraction and electron diffraction (to avoid multiple x-ray scattering problems), the scientists produced a three-dimensional map… 

Atom Scattering from Metals

In the initial portion of this dissertation studies of Ar scattering from Ru(0001) at thermal and hyperthermal energies are compared to calculations with classical scattering theory. These data

On Mapping Electron Clouds with Force Microscopy

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Inelastic light scattering from correlated electrons

Inelastic light scattering is an intensively used tool in the study of electronic properties of solids. Triggered by the discovery of high-temperature superconductivity in the cuprates and by new

Initio ( from Electronic Structure ) Calculation of Complex Processes in Materials

s of the presentations Calculations of Magnetic Exchange Interactions in dand f-Electron Systems Sergej Savrasov, University of California The use of linear response based magnetic force theorem for

Interplay of Superconductivity and Magnetism in the Two Dimensional Kondo Lattice Model

Since the original discovery of heavy fermion behavior in the late seventies by Andres et al. [1], heavy fermions keep attracting scientific interest due to their exotic and unusual properties. These

Single particle versus collective electronic excitations

As a first approximation, a metal can be modelled as an electron gas. A non-interacting electron gas has a continuous spectrum of electron-hole pair excitations. At each wavevector Q with |Q| less

Electron - Phonon Superconductivity

A fairly sophisticated description of electron-phonon superconductivity has existed since the early 1960’s, following the work of Eliashberg [1], Nambu [2], Morel and Anderson [3], and Schrieffer et

Local density of states and scanning tunneling currents in graphene

We present exact analytical calculations of scanning tunneling currents in locally disordered graphene using a multimode description of the microscope tip. Analytical expressions for the local

Historical Approach to Organic Superconductivity

Superconductivity, i.e; the possibility for electrons to flow through a conductor without any energy loss has been the fuel for a very large number of industrial applications of physics in the 20th

Continuous-time Monte Carlo methods for quantum impurity models

Quantum impurity models describe an atom or molecule embedded in a host material with which it can exchange electrons. They are basic to nanoscience as representations of quantum dots and molecular