Physically-based glare effects for digital images

  title={Physically-based glare effects for digital images},
  author={Greg Spencer and Peter Shirley and Kurt Zimmerman and Donald P. Greenberg},
  journal={Proceedings of the 22nd annual conference on Computer graphics and interactive techniques},
  • G. Spencer, P. Shirley, D. Greenberg
  • Published 15 September 1995
  • Physics
  • Proceedings of the 22nd annual conference on Computer graphics and interactive techniques
The physical mechanisms and physiological causes of glare in human vision are reviewed. These mechanisms are scattering in the cornea, lens, and retina, and diffraction in the coherent cell structures on the outer radial areas of the lens. This scattering and diffraction are responsible for the “bloom” and “flare lines” seen around very bright objects. The diffraction effects cause the “lenticular halo”. The quantitative models of these glare effects are reviewed, and an algorithm for using… 

Glare generation based on wave optics

This paper proposes a general method of glare generation based on wave optics that computes glare images fully automatically from aperture images and can be applied universally to all kinds of apertures, including camera diaphragms.

Temporal Glare: Real‐Time Dynamic Simulation of the Scattering in the Human Eye

It is argued that the temporal properties of glare are a strong means to increase perceived brightness and to produce realistic and attractive renderings of bright light sources and that dynamic glare‐renderings are often perceived as more attractive depending on the chosen scene.

Introducing Vision-Realistic Rendering

Applications of visionrealistic rendering in computer graphics as well as in optometry and ophthalmology are discussed and it is noted that the method is a post-process and can handle simple camera models as a special case.

Reconstructing the Visual Field of Compound Eyes

This paper uses Apis meliferra as a case study, constructing a geometric model of the retinal structure of the eye and applying psychophysical data obtained from physiological, morphological and behavioural studies regarding spectral sensitivity and spatial acuity in order to reconstruct an image approximating that perceived by a bee.

A model of visual adaptation for realistic image synthesis

A computational model of visual adaptation for realistic image synthesis based on psychophysical experiments that captures the changes in threshold visibility, color appearance, visual acuity, and sensitivity over time that are caused by the visual system’s adaptation mechanisms.

Glare aware photography: 4D ray sampling for reducing glare effects of camera lenses

The approach handles photography looking into the sun and photos taken without a hood, removes the effect of lens smudges and reduces loss of contrast due to camera body reflections, and shows various applications in contrast enhancement and glare manipulation.

A framework for realistic image synthesis

Our goal is to develop physically based lighting models and perceptually based rendering procedures for computer graphics that will produce synthetic images that are visually and measurably

Night Rendering

The issues of realistically rendering naturally illuminated scenes at night are examined. This requires accurate models for moonlight, night skylight, and starlight. In addition, several issues in

Brightness of the glare illusion

It is found that the Gaussian kernel evokes an illusion of the same or higher strength than that produced by the PSF while being computationally much less expensive, which can raise the perceived luminance by 20 -- 35%, and some convolution kernels can produce undesirable Mach-band effects and thereby reduce the brightness boost of the glare illusion.

Glowing Greys and Surface-White: The Photo-Geometric Factors of Luminosity Perception

The results of three experiments indicate that the phenomenon is in direct contradiction to the aforementioned assumptions and suggest the existence of separate perceptual pathways for self-luminosity perception and for surface-colour perception.



The scattering theory of the effect of glare on the brightness difference threshold

The introduction of light sources into the visual field results, as is well known, in an increase in the brightness difference threshold for foveal vision. Several extensive investigations of this

Intraocular light scattering in vision, artistic painting, and photography.

Light scattering in the eye is reviewed, and its influence on vision is discussed in some detail, and a method to achieve similar effects in photography by the use of diffraction filters in front of the camera lens is demonstrated.

Tone reproduction for realistic images

Sensation-preserving conversions for display, already known in photography, printing, and television as tone reproduction methods, are discussed and ways of constructing a sensation-preservative display converter, or tone reproduction operator, for monochrome images are demonstrated.

Small-angle intraocular light scatter: a hypothesis concerning its source.

  • R. Hemenger
  • Medicine
    Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics and image science
  • 1988
A hypothesis is presented that implicates the fiber architecture of the ocular lens in small-angle scatter, this being the only part contributing to the associated reduction in vision.

Sources of intraocular light scatter from inversion of an empirical glare function.

It is argued that refractive-index fluctuations associated with the lens fiber lattice are capable of contributing significantly to intraocular scatter and that they provide the necessary large spatial extent.

Intraocular light scatter in normal vision loss with age.

It is shown that the measured loss of vision with age is consistent with the hypothesis that it is due to increased intraocular light scatter.

Individual Responses to Lighting Parameters for a Population of 235 Observers of Varying Ages

The authors present the results of a comprehensive study of the effects of observer age upon various relationships between lighting parameters, task visibility, and dynamic visual performance, finding that disability glare effect is more than 1.5 times as great a detriment to visual performance in night driving as had been previously supposed.

The RADIANCE lighting simulation and rendering system

  • G. Ward
  • Computer Science
  • 1994
A physically-based rendering system tailored to the demands of lighting design and architecture using a light-backwards ray-tracing method with extensions to efficiently solve the rendering equation under most conditions.

Wavelength selection for synthetic image generation

  • G. Meyer
  • Physics
    Comput. Vis. Graph. Image Process.
  • 1988

Transmission of the Ocular Media

The spectral transmittance of ultraviolet, visible, and near infrared light through the ocular media of humans has been measured and shows that the transmission of ultraviolet radiation decreases with the age of the eye.