Physical site characteristics limit pollination and fruit set in the dioecious hydrophilous species, Vallisneria americana

@article{Sullivan2004PhysicalSC,
  title={Physical site characteristics limit pollination and fruit set in the dioecious hydrophilous species, Vallisneria americana},
  author={Gary Sullivan and John E. Titus},
  journal={Oecologia},
  year={2004},
  volume={108},
  pages={285-292}
}
Experimental and observational studies of the submersed, freshwater macrophyte Vallisneria americana Michx. revealed that depth, wind and wave exposure, and current velocity may all influence fruit set. In this dioecious species, long-pedunculate female flowers are pollinated by free-floating male flowers at the water surface. Average fruit set in the natural populations studied varied from zero to 97% of the flowers observed. With increasing water depth in New York and Pennsylvania lakes… 

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