Physical environment modulates the behavioral responses induced by chemical stimulation of dorsal periaqueductal gray in mice

  title={Physical environment modulates the behavioral responses induced by chemical stimulation of dorsal periaqueductal gray in mice},
  author={Eduardo Ferreira de Carvalho-Netto and Chris M. Markham and D. Caroline Blanchard and Ricardo L. Nunes‐de‐Souza and Robert J. Blanchard},
  journal={Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior},
In order to investigate the relationship between behaviors elicited by chemical stimulation of the dorsal periaqueductal gray (dorsal PAG) and spontaneous defensive behaviors to a predator, the excitatory amino acid D,L-homocysteic acid (5 nmol in 0.1 micro l), was infused into the dorsal PAG and behavioral responses of mice were evaluated in two different situations, a rectangular novel chamber or the Mouse Defense Test Battery (MDTB) apparatus. During a 1-min period following drug infusion… 
Effects of intra-PAG infusion of ovine CRF on defensive behaviors in Swiss-Webster mice
It is suggested that patterns of defensiveness in response to low intensity threat (RET) are more sensitive to intra-DPAG oCRF than those triggered by high intensity threats (MDTB).
Role of glutamate NMDA receptors and nitric oxide located within the periaqueductal gray on defensive behaviors in mice confronted by predator
Findings suggest a potential role of glutamate NMDA receptors and NO in the dPAG in the regulation of defensive behaviors in mice during a confrontation with a predator in the rat exposure test (RET).
Role of nitric oxide in the periaqueductal gray in defensive behavior in mice: influence of prior local N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor activation and aversive condition
N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor activation within the dorsal column of the periaqueductal gray (dPAG) leads to antinociceptive, autonomic, and behavioral responses characterized as the fear
Effects of site-specific electrolytic and neurotoxic lesions on defensive responding in rodents
The use of predator-related stimuli, such as cat fur/skin odors, has proven to be useful in eliciting defensive responses in both wild and laboratory rodents. These behaviors, including freezing,
Activation of 5-HT2C receptors in the dorsal periaqueductal gray increases antinociception in mice exposed to the elevated plus-maze
The results suggest that the 5-HT(2C) receptors located within the PAG play a role in this type of environmentally induced pain inhibition in mice.
Increased corticosterone levels in mice subjected to the rat exposure test
High plasma corticosterone levels along with clear avoidance behaviors represented by decreases in tunnel and surface area exploration and increases in risk assessment behaviors and freezing strongly suggests that the RET elicits a repertoire of behavioral responses compatible with an aversion state and indicates that it is a promising model for the evaluation of prey-predator interactions.
5-HT2 receptor activation in the midbrain periaqueductal grey (PAG) reduces anxiety-like behaviour in mice
5HT2C receptor populations within the midbrain PAG play an inhibitory role in plus-maze anxiety in mice, suggesting a role that in part depends upon neuroanatomical locus of action.
Chemical neuroanatomical and psychopharmacological evidence that κ receptor-mediated endogenous opioid peptide neurotransmission in the dorsal and ventral mesencephalon modulates panic-like behaviour.
The present data offer a neuroanatomical basis for both intratectal axo-axonic/pre-synaptic and tecto-nigral axo -somatic opioid inhibition of GABAergic nigro-tectal neurons that modulate the dorsal midbrain neurons related to the organisation of fear-related emotional responses.
Blockade of 5-HT2 receptors in the periaqueductal grey matter (PAG) abolishes the anxiolytic-like effect of 5-HT1A receptor antagonism in the median raphe nucleus in mice
5HT(2) receptor populations located within the midbrain PAG play a significant role in the reduction of anxiety observed following disinhibition of 5-HT neurons in the MRN, and this effect was completely blocked by intra-PAG pretreatment with an intrinsically-inactive dose of ketanserin.
Segregated Anatomical Input to Sub-Regions of the Rodent Superior Colliculus Associated with Approach and Defense
Results indicate significantly more structures across the rat neuraxis are in a position to modulate defense responses evoked from SCm, and that neural mechanisms modulating SC-mediated defense or appetitive behavior are almost entirely segregated.


Effect of dorsal periaqueductal gray lesion on cardiovascular and behavioural responses to contextual conditioned fear in rats
Most of DPAG appears to play little role in the expression of the contextual fear response and may be explained by lesion of adjacent structures: the lateral PAG and the superior colliculus (baroreflex alteration), respectively.
Yohimbine potentiates active defensive responses to threatening stimuli in Swiss-Webster mice
Yohimbine HCl, an antagonist at alpha 2-noradrenaline receptors with putative panicogenic effects in human subjects, was administered to Swiss-Webster mice at doses of 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mg/kg to have some utility for the investigation of panicogenic and antipanic compounds and may contribute insights into the etiology of panic disorder.
Dorsal periaqueductal gray-induced aversion as a simulation of panic anxiety: Elements of face and predictive validity
It is suggested that dPAG stimulation-induced aversion may represent a model of some aspects of panic disorders.
Organization of single components of defensive behaviors within distinct columns of periaqueductal gray matter of the rat: role of N-METHYL-d-aspartic acid glutamate receptors
The periaqueductal gray matter (PAG) is functionally organized in longitudinal columns arranged along the aqueduct. Stimulation of lateral and dorsal columns produces a complex set of unconditioned
Indentification of midbrain neurones mediating defensive behaviour in the rat by microinjections of excitatory amino acids
Unilateral microinjections (0.20 microliter) of excitatory amino acids were made into the midbrain of freely moving rats. Injections made within the midbrain periaqueductal grey matter (PAG)
Mouse defensive behaviors: pharmacological and behavioral assays for anxiety and panic
P predictive validity in terms of response to drugs active against specific defensive psychopathology is the most extensively investigated of these, indicating that natural defensive behaviors provide a well-characterized pattern for analysis of effects of genetic or other physiological manipulations in the mouse, and may also serve as a model forAnalysis of defense-related human psychopathology.
Long-term effects of clomipramine and fluoxetine on dorsal periaqueductal grey-evoked innate defensive behaviours of the rat
Attenuation of galloping by lower doses of FLX and CLM also suggests the prominent modulation of this response by serotonin, and partially validate the DPAG-evoked defence reaction of the rat as a model of panic attacks in humans.
Functional specializations within the tectum defense systems of the rat
The results suggest a dynamically organized representation of defensive behaviors in the midbrain tectum, which may be distinct from the full-blown flight reaction that is mediated by the dorsolateral and lateral PAG.
Attenuation of chemically induced defence response by 5-HT1 receptor agonists administered into the periaqueductal gray
The results suggest that in vivo activation of 5-HT1A receptors mediates an antiaversive reponse with respect to defensive behaviour elicited by specific chemical stimulation of the dorsal PAG.
Serotonin, the periaqueductal gray and panic
  • F. Graeff
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews
  • 2004
Experimental evidence and theoretical constructs that implicate serotonin (5-HT) modulation of defensive behavior within the midbrain periaqueductal gray in panic disorder (PD) show that drugs that enhance 5-HT function increase different indexes of anxiety, but decrease indexes of panic.