Physical characteristics of rumen contents in four large ruminants of different feeding type, the addax (Addax nasomaculatus), bison (Bison bison), red deer (Cervus elaphus) and moose (Alces alces).

@article{Clauss2009PhysicalCO,
  title={Physical characteristics of rumen contents in four large ruminants of different feeding type, the addax (Addax nasomaculatus), bison (Bison bison), red deer (Cervus elaphus) and moose (Alces alces).},
  author={Marcus Clauss and Julia Fritz and Dorothee Bayer and Kaarlo Nygr{\'e}n and Sven Hammer and Jean-Michel Hatt and Karl-Heinz S{\"u}dekum and J{\"u}rgen Hummel},
  journal={Comparative biochemistry and physiology. Part A, Molecular & integrative physiology},
  year={2009},
  volume={152 3},
  pages={398-406}
}
Based on morphological and physiological observations, it has been suggested that differences exist in the degree that reticuloruminal (RR) contents are stratified between various ruminant species. However, the occurrence of stratification has hardly been measured in non-domestic species. Forestomach contents of free-ranging moose (n=22) and red deer (24) shot during regular hunting procedures, and of captive (but 100% forage fed) addax (6) and bison (10) culled for commercial or management… CONTINUE READING

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