Physical and Chemical Interactions with Conspecifics Mediate Sex Change in a Protandrous Gastropod Crepidula fornicata

  title={Physical and Chemical Interactions with Conspecifics Mediate Sex Change in a Protandrous Gastropod Crepidula fornicata},
  author={Abigail E. Cahill and Alia Rehana Juman and Aaron Pellman-Isaacs and William T Bruno},
  journal={The Biological Bulletin},
  pages={276 - 281}
The protandrous marine snail Crepidula fornicata has been a theoretical and empirical model for studies of sex change for many decades. We investigated the social conditions under which sex change occurs in this species by manipulating physical and chemical contact with conspecifics. Male snails were either in physical and chemical contact with females or in chemical contact with, but physically isolated from, females. Males were tested both with living females and with empty, sterilized shells… 

The relationship between sex change and reproductive success in a protandric marine gastropod

The results supported expectations showing that male competitive ability for access to the female, time spent by males in the copulatory position, and sibling cannibalism affect reproductive success and influence time to sex change, with less successful males hastening sex change.

Does the Presence of Boring Sponges Alter Timing of Sex Change in Slipper Shell Snails, Crepidula fornicata?

Results from field surveys and an in situ experiment suggest that sex change in this species appears robust to biotic stressors, suggesting that C. fornicata will undergo sex change when conditions dictate, a strategy that likely allows it to maximize lifetime reproductive output.

Sex Determination, Sexual Development, and Sex Change in Slipper Snails.

The calyptraeid gastropods are presented as a model for the study of the evolution of sex determination in a sequentially hermaphroditic system and the embryonic origins and earliest expression of the germ line are considered.

Fecundity of the invasive marine gastropod Crepidula fornicata near the current northern extreme of its range

Contrary to expectations, size-related fecundities were significantly higher for Norwegian females than for Rhode Island females, with Norwegian females producing larger egg capsules and a greater number of embryos per capsule, but not a greaternumber of egg capsules per brood.

Beyond the sea: Crepidula atrasolea as a spiralian model system.

A developmental transcriptome for C. atrasolea is presented, covering early cleavage through late organogenesis stages, as a useful tool for future studies of gene expression and function, and is provided to the broader developmental community to facilitate widespread use of this system.

Thermal Stress Leads to Behavioral Shifts in two Species of Slippersnail, Crepidula fornicata and Crepidula plana

Study of the response to thermal stress of two species in the slipper snail genus, Crepidula, found that both species had a significant increase in feeding rate in the hot system, yet rates in the control and cold systems had no difference.

Molluscan models: Crepidula fornicata.



Effects of conspecific associations on size at sex change in three species of calyptraeid gastropods

The laboratory experiments showed that the response to interactions with conspecifics is generally similar and the differences in size at sex change between the treatments is small and the treatment effect explains more of the variation in size in C. onyx and C. incurva.

Experimental test of socially mediated sex change in a protandric simultaneous hermaphrodite, the marine shrimp Lysmata wurdemanni (Caridea: Hippolytidae)

The number and complexity of social interactions in large groups may be necessary to stimulate labile sex change in this species and size-ratio induction of sex change by small MPs was suggested but not confirmed.


It is indicated that sex change appears to occur at smaller sizes when large individuals (presumably females) are rare, and the fact that P. ferruginea may exhibit environmentally mediated sex change could influence population management decisions.

Variation in size at sex-change among natural populations of the protandrous hermaphrodite, Crepidula fornicata (Gastropoda, Calyptraeidae)

The data support the conclusions that size at sex-change is not fixed for these hermaphrodites and that individual size, social conditions and population differences all influence variation in relative fitness.

Effects of food availability on sex change in two species of Crepidula (Gastropoda: Calyptraeidae)

The results are consistent with the idea that, as more resources become available, time dedicated to active sexual phases is maximized and the duration of the non-reproductive transitional phase is minimized.

Effects of protandric sex change on radula, pedal morphology, and mobility in Crepidula fecunda (Gastropoda: Calyptraeidae)

A complex interaction was observed between size, mobility, histological changes in the foot, activity, and tooth‐wear of the radula, which have been related to the sessile habit, sex change, and the oviposition process in this species.

Gregariousness and protandry promote reproductive insurance in the invasive gastropod Crepidula fornicata: evidence from assignment of larval paternity

It was pointed out that mating behaviours and patterns of gender allocation varied in concert across sites suggesting that multiple paternities might enhance sex reversal depending on sperm competition intensity.

Sex, Size, and Position: A Test of Models Predicting Size at Sex Change in the Protandrous Gastropod Crepidula fornicata

  • R. Collin
  • Environmental Science, Psychology
    The American Naturalist
  • 1995
Three models that predict the size at sex change using estimates of immediate reproductive potential based on individual size and interactions with conspecifics showed that an individual's sex could be predicted as well by its size alone as by the combination of each group member's size.