Physical Sources of Noise

  title={Physical Sources of Noise},
  author={John R. Pierce},
  journal={Proceedings of the IRE},
  • J. Pierce
  • Published 1 May 1956
  • Physics
  • Proceedings of the IRE
Johnson noise is caused by the fluctuation of charges or polarizable molecules in lossy materials. Its magnitude can best be calculated by means of statistical mechanics, which tells us that each degree of freedom must have associated with it an energy of ½ kT. This leads to the usual expressions for Johnson noise, including the fact that the available thermal noise power, from a resistor, a lossy network, a lossy dielectric, or an antenna is always kTB. In the case of a resistor, network, or… 
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