Physical Sources of Noise

@article{Pierce1956PhysicalSO,
  title={Physical Sources of Noise},
  author={John R. Pierce},
  journal={Proceedings of the IRE},
  year={1956},
  volume={44},
  pages={601-608}
}
  • J. Pierce
  • Published 1 May 1956
  • Physics
  • Proceedings of the IRE
Johnson noise is caused by the fluctuation of charges or polarizable molecules in lossy materials. Its magnitude can best be calculated by means of statistical mechanics, which tells us that each degree of freedom must have associated with it an energy of ½ kT. This leads to the usual expressions for Johnson noise, including the fact that the available thermal noise power, from a resistor, a lossy network, a lossy dielectric, or an antenna is always kTB. In the case of a resistor, network, or… 
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A theory of contact noise is described in which the low-frequency noise is attributed to the random movement of adsorbed ions on the surface of a semiconductor from which an electron current is being
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A tutorial exposition is given of various analytical concepts and techniques of proved value in calculating the response of electrical systems to noise waves. The relevant probability theory is
Noise in resistances and electron streams
TLDR
A worker who uses results established in a field will discover many plausible reasons for believing the results, and he will find eventually that an air of inevitability and “understanding” pervades the subject.
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The electromotive force due to thermal agitation in conductors is calculated by means of principles in thermodynamics and statistical mechanics. The results obtained agree with results obtained
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Wahrend in der Theorie des Schroteffektes lange Zeit zunachst nur der korpuskulare Standpunkt vertreten wurde und erst in letzter Zeit sich eine Verschmelzung mit thermodynamischen Betrachtungen