Physical Sciences: Record-breaking Cosmic Ray Storm stemming from Solar Activity in August 1972

  title={Physical Sciences: Record-breaking Cosmic Ray Storm stemming from Solar Activity in August 1972},
  author={M. Pomerantz and S. P. Duggal},
AN unusual centre of solar activity was the seat of the most severe disturbances of the current solar cycle early in August 1972. It produced reports from the general public of various visual phenomena in the night sky, surges in electrical systems, radio blackouts and effects upon the navigation of birds in flight. Of the great variety of physical phenomena associated with this remarkable region (sunspot group 331, McMath plage region 11976, centred at Carrington, longitude 009 degrees), we… Expand
Interplanetary acceleration of solar cosmic rays to relativistic energy
Although the August 1972 cosmic ray storm (i.e., a rapid succession of Forbush decreases) was the greatest in more than 3 decades of continuous observations, halving the flux of galactic cosmic raysExpand
Some unusual features of the cosmic ray storm in August 1972
The unusually large cosmic ray disturbance commencing on August 4 had three unusual features. First, a ground level event (GLE) was seen in neutron monitors at Pc ≲ 1.5 GV beginning at about 1400 UT,Expand
Symmetrical equator—pole anisotropy during an unusual cosmic ray storm
The third remarkable cosmic ray storm in more than two decades of continuous observations commenced on February 14, 1978. In contrast with its two predecessors (July 11, 1959 and August 4, 1972), theExpand
Solar Particle Observations During the August 1972 Event
Observations of solar electron, proton, and alpha particles made with the Explorer-41 satellite at 1 AU during the period of intense solar activity in August 1972 are presented. The intensities ofExpand
The Sun and cosmic rays
Solar phenomena produce cosmic ray intensity variations over a wide range of time scales. The observed flux is modulated and rendered anisotropic as the particles propagate in the solar wind, and itExpand
On the Little-Known Consequences of the 4 August 1972 Ultra-Fast Coronal Mass Ejecta: Facts, Commentary, and Call to Action
Today the extreme space weather events of early August 1972 are discussed as benchmarks for Sun-Earth transit times of solar ejecta (14.6 hr) and for solar energetic particle fluxes (10 MeV ion fluxExpand
The origin of transient cosmic ray intensity variations
A new approach to determining the solar progenitor of transient cosmic ray intensity variations has revealed that in a statistical sense, solar flares, heretofore regarded as the predominant sourceExpand
Relativistic solar protons
This review attempts to summarize work by U.S. scientists, published during the period from 1971 to 1974, on various aspects of high-energy solar protons associated with solar flares. In contrastExpand
Temporal Variations of Solar Particle Spectra (August 4–7, 1972)
Solar particle fluxes were measured with balloon-borne instrumentation at Kiruna (Sweden) during the solar particle events of August 1972. Data from these balloon flights and from the satelliteExpand
Discontinuous Change in Earth's Spin Rate following Great Solar Storm of August 1972
THE question of a link between changes in the Earth's spin rate and the activity of the Sun is of topical interest, and there is good evidence that the changing length of day is influenced by theExpand


The cosmic ray storm of July, 1961☆
Observations of sudden cosmic-ray increases up to 8 million km from the earth were made using a space probe and satellite. Measurements were made in July, 196l. Intensity peaks arose from aExpand
Forbush decreases in the cosmic radiation
The experimental observations of Forbush decreases in recent years are reviewed and related to different theoretical models which have been proposed. The observational data from both ground-based andExpand
The iqsy and solar-terrestrial research.
  • M. Pomerantz
  • Environmental Science, Medicine
  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 1967