Physical Aspects of Transgender Endocrine Therapy

  title={Physical Aspects of Transgender Endocrine Therapy},
  author={Marshall Dahl and Jamie L Feldman and Joshua M. Goldberg and Afshin Jaberi},
  journal={International Journal of Transgenderism},
  pages={111 - 134}
SUMMARY The goal of transgender endocrine therapy is to change secondary sex characteristics to reduce gender dysphoria and/or facilitate gender presentation that is consistent with the felt sense of self. To maximize desired effects and minimize adverse effects, endocrine therapy must be individualized based on the patient's goals, the risk/benefit ratio of medications, the presence of other medical conditions, and consideration of social and economic issues. In this article we suggest… 

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Update on Gender‐Affirming Treatment for the Transgender Woman

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  • 2017
Transgender women often transition with cross‐sex hormone therapy and some opt to further affirm themselves with breast augmentation, facial feminization procedures, and/or vaginoplasty surgery, and the unique risks, advantages, and disadvantages must be considered.



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This article summarizes existing research in transgender medicine and provides guidance for family physicians and nurses in adapting standard primary care protocols relating to health maintenance, acute illness, and chronic disease management to address trans-specific clinical oncerns.

Transgender health.

Patients best explore transgender issues in a setting of respect and trust in which confidentiality concerns are addressed, and clinic staff are educated about transgender issues.

Hormonal medication for transsexuals

The higher doses of oestrogen required for feminization of transsexual males are attended by risks of serious complications, including thromo-embolism, hypertension, stroke, impaired carbohydrate tolerance, gallstones, hyperlipidaemia and adenomas or prolactinomas of the anterior pituitary gland.

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Physicians caring for patients with transsexualism should have a general knowledge about the diagnosis, available treatment, and monitoring for complications of hormonal therapy.

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Multistep treatment concept of transsexual patients.

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