Phylogeography, phylogeny and hybridization in trichechid sirenians: implications for manatee conservation

  title={Phylogeography, phylogeny and hybridization in trichechid sirenians: implications for manatee conservation},
  author={Juliana A. Vianna and Robert K. Bonde and Susana Caballero and Juan Pablo Giraldo and R{\'e}gis Pinto de Lima and Annmarie Clark and Miriam Marmontel and Benjam{\'i}n Morales-vela and Maria Jos{\'e} de Souza and Leslee Parr and Marta A. Rodr{\'i}guez-L{\'o}pez and Antonio A. Mignucci-Giannoni and James Powell and Fabr{\'i}cio Rodrigues Santos},
  journal={Molecular Ecology},
The three living species of manatees, West Indian (Trichechus manatus), Amazonian (Trichechus inunguis) and West African (Trichechus senegalensis), are distributed across the shallow tropical and subtropical waters of America and the western coast of Africa. We have sequenced the mitochondrial DNA control region in 330 Trichechus to compare their phylogeographic patterns. In T. manatus we observed a marked population structure with the identification of three haplotype clusters showing a… 
Karyotypical Confirmation of Natural Hybridization between Two Manatee Species, Trichechus manatus and Trichechus inunguis
Two species of manatees are found in Northern Brazil—the Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus), which is found along the coast from Florida to Northeastern Brazil, and the Amazonian manatee
Phylogeography and Sex-Biased Dispersal across Riverine Manatee Populations (Trichechus inunguis and Trichechus manatus) in South America
Overall, molecular evidence for differences in dispersal patterns between sexes is provided, demonstrating male-biased gene flow dispersal in riverine manatees and more significant dispersal limitations for males in marine environments.
Genetic Diversity and Structure From Antillean Manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus) in the Southern Gulf of México: Comparison Between Connected and Isolated Populations
The IL population had slightly lower genetic diversity compared with OP, which could be explained by isolation of that small group, so conservation plans for IL should be considered as priority.
Conservation issues using discordant taxonomic and evolutionary units: a case study of the American manatee (Trichechus manatus, Sirenia)
Brazilian manatees should be considered as a full priority for conservation and require further taxonomic research; because of their deep history of isolation, they present high genetic and morphologic differentiation from all other American manatee populations.
Mitochondrial Genetic Diversity, Population Structure and Detection of Antillean and Amazonian Manatees in Colombia: New Areas and New Techniques
The Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus) and the Amazonian manatee (Trichechus inunguis) are distributed in rivers in the Caribbean and Amazonian region of Colombia respectively. For 30 years,
Manatee genomics supports a special conservation area in the Guianas coastline under the influence of the Amazon River plume
Results indicate that T. inunguis can survive in the Amazon River plume and have colonized independent water streams of the Guianas coastline where they likely hybridize with T. manatus, and offers a plausible explanation for the known extension of the hybrid zone between the two species along the GuIANas coastline.
Phylogeny and phylogeography of the Chacma Baboon (Papio ursinus): the role of landscape in shaping contemporary genetic structure in the southern African baboon
The results of this study support a model of climate driven diversification for Papio in which periods of isolation drive genetic and phenotypic differentiation.
Evidence of two genetic clusters of manatees with low genetic diversity in Mexico and implications for their conservation
The genetic structure, using microsatellites, shows the presence of two populations in Mexico: the Gulf of Mexico (GMx) and Chetumal Bay (ChB) on the Caribbean coast, with a zone of admixture in between, and suggests limited or unidirectional gene flow between these two important areas.
First Description of a Satellite DNA in Manatees’ Centromeric Regions
This work reports the first description of TMAsat, a satDNA comprising ~0.87% of the genome, with ~684bp monomers and centromeric localization, in manatees and will facilitate the inclusion of Sirenia in future studies of centromeres and satDNA biology.
Low genetic variation and evidence of limited dispersal in the regionally important Belize manatee
A comprehensive molecular investigation of the genetic diversity, relatedness and population structure of the Belize manatee population was conducted using mitochondrial and microsatellite DNA, indicating that separate protection of these two groups would best preserve the region’s diversity.


Phylogeography of the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus): how many populations and how many taxa?
Despite the manatee’s ability to move thousands of kilometres along continental margins, strong population separations between most locations were demonstrated with significant haplotype frequency shifts, consistent with tagging studies which indicate that stretches of open water and unsuitable coastal habitats constitute substantial barriers to gene flow and colonization.
Phylogeography and population genetics of the endangered Amazonian manatee, Trichechus inunguis Natterer, 1883 (Mammalia, Sirenia)
Patterns of mtDNA haplotype diversity in T. inunguis suggest a genetic disequilibrium most likely explained by demographic expansion resulting from secession of hunting and enforcement of conservation and protective measures, and nested clade analysis supports restricted gene flow and/or dispersal with some long‐distance dispersal.
The three living species of Trichechus are clearly defined and well exemplify the degree of variability and taxonomic value of morphological characters in a well-understood mammalian genus.
Genetic Variability in the Florida Manatee (Trichechus manatus)
Tissue from manatee carcasses salvaged from 20 counties in Florida supported the hypothesis that body size and heterozygosity in mammals are related inversely and revealed a general tendency toward excess homozygosity within regions.
Biogeography of the West Indies: Patterns and Perspectives
Biogeography of the West Indies: An Overview, S.A. Woods, R.W. Wood, and Blair Hedges.
Distribution, habitat, and conservation status of the West Indian manatee Trichechus manatus in French Guiana
Interview surveys of 116 coastal residents and fishermen and surveys by motorboat were conducted in 2000 and 2001 in French Guiana in order to assess the distribution, habitats and conservation
Uses of molecular phylogenies for conservation
This work has suggested that within species, molecular phylogenies along with information on allele frequencies can be used to identify evolutionarily significant population units or areas and this information can potentially suggest strategies for managing declining or fragmented species, but this requires further theoretical and experimental study.
Brevetoxicosis in Manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) from the 1996 Epizootic: Gross, Histologic, and Immunohistochemical Features
The data suggest that mortality resulting from brevetoxicosis may not necessarily be acute but may occur after chronic inhalation and/or ingestion, and suggests that brevet Toxicosis may initiate apoptosis and/ or the release of inflammatory mediators that culminate in fatal toxic shock.
Dynamics of mitochondrial DNA evolution in animals: amplification and sequencing with conserved primers.
The polymerase chain reaction is used to amplify homologous segments of mtDNA from more than 100 animal species, including mammals, birds, amphibians, fishes, and some invertebrates, and the unexpectedly wide taxonomic utility of these primers offers opportunities for phylogenetic and population research.
The former southern distribution of New World manatees (Trichechus spp.)
Manatees probably did not occur at Rio de Janeiro or Santos, the Sao Vicente “monster” most likely being a pinnepede.