Phylogeny of the bee family Melittidae (Hymenoptera: Anthophila) based on combined molecular and morphological data

  title={Phylogeny of the bee family Melittidae (Hymenoptera: Anthophila) based on combined molecular and morphological data},
  author={Denis Michez and S{\'e}bastien Patiny and Bryan N. Danforth},
  journal={Systematic Entomology},
The bee family Melittidae comprises a small, but biologically fascinating, group of mostly oligolectic bees, some of which are oil collecting. Phylogenetic relationships within this family are poorly understood and some genera cannot be placed with confidence at the subfamily level. We analysed melittid phylogeny using a combined dataset of five nuclear genes [28S, elongation factor‐1α (EF‐1α, F2 copy), long‐wavelength rhodopsin, Na‐K ATPase and RNA polymerase II] spanning 4842 bp plus 68 adult… 
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The examination of specimens collected from various parts of Turkey, mainly from East Anatolia, and an overview of the literature allows us to reach the conclusion that the Melittidae of Turkey are
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Comparative ecology of two specialist bees: Dasypoda visnaga Rossi, 1790 and Dasypoda maura Pérez, 1895 (Hymenoptera, Melittidae)
Though the two species show different morphological traits, palynological analyses show that D. visnaga and D. maura are similar in habitat requirements and both build nests in sandy soil that can reach a depth of 80 cm.
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0 e bees comprise a derived monophyletic group (Anthophila) of pollenconsuming (secondarily phytophagous) wasps of the superfamily Apoidea, and that diverged from a grade of predatory apoid wasps


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The phylogenetic utility of the nuclear gene encoding the long-wavelength opsin (LW Rh) for tribes of bees is reported, suggesting that LW Rh could provide important new data from the nuclear genome for phylogeny reconstruction.
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Both Bayesian and parsimony phylogenies are well resolved and indicate a monophyletic Pyrobombus when assessed against representatives of 20 additional subgenera, and the more conserved nuclear genes, especially EF-1α and ArgK, provided good support across all of the taxonomic levels examined.
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This work reconstructed a robust phylogeny of bees at the family and subfamily levels using a data set of five genes (4,299 nucleotide sites) plus morphology (109 characters) and suggested an African origin for bees, because the earliest branches of the tree include predominantly African lineages.
The oldest fossil of a melittid bee (Hymenoptera: Apiformes) from the early Eocene of Oise (France)
The discovery of an early Eocene Melittidae supports the hypothesis thatMelittidae could constitute the basal branch of bee phylogeny, and the morphology and disposition of the setae of P. eocenicus are similar to those of the contemporary oil- collecting bee Macropis.
Single-copy nuclear genes recover cretaceous-age divergences in bees.
The results indicate that each of the four subfamilies arose well before the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary and suggest that the early radiation of halictid bees involved substantial African-South American interchange roughly coincident with the separation of these two continents in the late Cret Jurassic.
Biology and Imnmature Stages of the Bee Genus Meganomia ( Hymenoptera , Melittidae )
Cladistic analysis of features of the mature larva indicates that Meganomia is a sister group to all other melittids whose immatures are known.
Family-Group Names for Bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea)
The name Anthophila, as proposed by Latreille, is adopted for the bees as a whole and the suggested current usage of all available family-group names is appended.