Phylogeny of seed plants based on evidence from eight genes.

  title={Phylogeny of seed plants based on evidence from eight genes.},
  author={Douglas E. Soltis and Pamela S. Soltis and Michael J. Zanis},
  journal={American journal of botany},
  volume={89 10},
Relationships among the five groups of extant seed plants (cycads, Ginkgo, conifers, Gnetales, and angiosperms) remain uncertain. To explore relationships among groups of extant seed plants further and to attempt to explain the conflict among molecular data sets, we assembled a data set of four plastid (cpDNA) genes (rbcL, atpB, psaA, and psbB), three mitochondrial (mtDNA) genes (mtSSU, coxI, and atpA), and one nuclear gene (18S rDNA) for 19 exemplars representing the five groups of living seed… 
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The molecular phylogeny strongly conflicts with current interpretations of seed plant morphology, and implies that many similarities between gnetophytes and angiosperms were independently derived, whereas other characters could emerge as synapomorphies for an expanded conifer group including Gnetales.
Seed plant phylogeny inferred from all three plant genomes: monophyly of extant gymnosperms and origin of Gnetales from conifers.
The Gnetales may be viewed as extremely divergent conifers, and the many morphological similarities between angiosperms and G netales arose independently.
Molecular phylogeny of extant gymnosperms and seed plant evolution: analysis of nuclear 18S rRNA sequences.
To study the evolutionary relationships among the four living gymnosperm orders and the interfamilial relationships in each order, a set of 65 nuclear 18S rRNA sequences from ferns, gymnosperms, and
MADS-box genes reveal that gnetophytes are more closely related to conifers than to flowering plants.
P phylogeny reconstructions and the outcome of expression studies suggest that complex features such as flower-like reproductive structures and double-fertilization arose independently in gnetophytes and angiosperms.
Phylogeny of Basal Angiosperms: Analyses of Five Genes from Three Genomes1
The standard most parsimonious trees search, taxon deletion analyses, and constraint analyses in combination with Kishino‐Hasegawa tests provided a rigorous analytical perspective for identifying Amborella, Nymphaeales, and Illiciales‐Trimeniaceae‐Austrobaileya (ANITA) as the basalmost lineages of extant angiosperms.
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This study demonstrates that Amboreella, Nymphaeales and Illiciales-Trimeniaceae-Austrobaileya represent the first stage of angiosperm evolution, with Amborella being sister to all other angiosperms, and shows that Gnetales are related to the conifers and are not sister to the angios perms, thus refuting the Anthophyte Hypothesis.
Seed Plant Phylogeny and the Relationships of Gnetales
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    International Journal of Plant Sciences
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Utility of 17 chloroplast genes for inferring the phylogeny of the basal angiosperms.
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Seed Plant Relationships and the Systematic Position of Gnetales Based on Nuclear and Chloroplast DNA: Conflicting Data, Rooting Problems, and the Monophyly of Conifers
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