Phylogeny of Higher Taxa in Insecta: Finding Synapomorphies in the Extant Fauna and Separating Them from Homoplasies

@article{KukalovPeck2007PhylogenyOH,
  title={Phylogeny of Higher Taxa in Insecta: Finding Synapomorphies in the Extant Fauna and Separating Them from Homoplasies},
  author={J. Kukalov{\'a}-Peck},
  journal={Evolutionary Biology},
  year={2007},
  volume={35},
  pages={4-51}
}
Most currently applied systematic methods use post-groundplan character states to reconstruct phylogenies in modern higher Insecta/Arthropoda taxa. But, this approach is unable to separate synapomorphies from frequently occurring homoplasies. Conflicting, unresolved and unrealistic higher-level phylogenies result. The reasons are analyzed. A contrasting “groundplan” method, long used in Vertebrata and found to be superior in resolving higher-level phylogenies, is described. This method, as used… Expand
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