Phylogeny and classification of the Psocodea, with particular reference to the lice (Psocodea: Phthiraptera)

  title={Phylogeny and classification of the Psocodea, with particular reference to the lice (Psocodea: Phthiraptera)},
  author={Christopher H C Lyal},
  journal={Systematic Entomology},
  • C. Lyal
  • Published 1 April 1985
  • Biology
  • Systematic Entomology
ABSTRACT. Apomorphies that have been proposed for the Psocodea, Psocoptera, Phthiraptera and superfamilial groups within the Phthiraptera are enumerated and evaluated. The Psocodea and Phthiraptera are considered to be holophyletic, but the sister‐group of the Phthiraptera lies within the Psocoptera. Within the Phthiraptera the Anoplura and Rhyncophthirina form a holophyletic group whose sister‐group is the Ischnocera, and the Amblycera is the sister‐group of this assemblage. The common… 
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In search of the sister group of the true lice : A systematic review of booklice and their relatives, with an updated checklist of Liposcelididae (Insecta: Psocodea)
The taxonomy, fossil record, phylogeny, and systematic placement of the booklouse family Liposcelididae were reviewed and paraphyly of Psocoptera is now well established, based on both morphological and molecular data.
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The Mallophaga (Amblycera, Ischnocera, Rhynchophthirina) is apparently paraphyletic with respect to the Anoplura, and each of the three suborders of lice that are well represented in this study are monophyletic.
Basal ischnoceran louse phylogeny (Phthiraptera: Ischnocera: Goniodidae and Heptapsogasteridae)
Mapping host taxonomy on to the phylogeny of the lice reveals a consistent pattern which is largely congruent down to the rank of host family, although at lower taxonomic levels the association appears to be more complex.
Morphology of male genitalia in lice and their relatives and phylogenetic implications
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Phylogenetic analysis of partial sequences of elongation factor 1alpha identifies major groups of lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera).
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Parallel Evolution, Cladistics, and Classification of Parasitic Psocodea
The view is reaffirmed that the Anoplura are distinct from the Amblycera, Ischnocera, and Rhynchophthirina (order Mallophaga) and should be treated as a separate order.
Phylogenetic Relationships of Parasitic Psocodea and Taxonomic Position of the Anoplura
It is concluded that the sucking lice (Anoplura) are distinct from the chewing lice and should retain the rank of order and the order Mallophaga (including three suborders, Amblycera, Ischnocera, and Rhynchophthirina) must be retained.
The Determination of Parallel or Monophyletic Relationships: The Proteid Salamanders-A Test Case
It is concluded that Proteus and Necturus are probably not derived from a common ancestor which was a perennibranchiate salamander and there is no morphological, paleontological, or biogeographical evidence to favor either of these hypotheses over the other.
Phylogeny of Insect Orders
This review is devoted to a treatment of the phylogeny of extant orders of insects and their closest relatives and to the numerous new proposals made in a thought-provoking, recent book by Boudreaux (15).
Letter to the Editors: Concerning “Phylogenetic Relationships of Parasitic Psocodea and Taxonomic Position of the Anoplura” K. C. Kim and H. W. Ludwig
Kim and Ludwig (1978) tried to confirm an interpretation of psocodean phylogeny leading to equivalent taxa (orders) of Psocoptera, Mallophaga, and Anoplura.
Anatomy and affinity of the elephant louse Haematomyzus elephantis Piaget (Insecta: Rhyncophthiraptera)
The affinities of the elephant louse are discussed and the creation of a new order, the Rhyncophthiraptera, to accommodate Haematomyzus, is suggested.
Concepts of phylogenetic relationships are defined, and the possibilities of their expression in a hierarchical classification are explored, and it is apparent that when meaningful concepts of kinship are arrived at, and agreed upon, they are worth having.
Arthropod Phylogeny with Special Reference to Insects
Elucidates the major evolutionary pathways of the Phylum Arthropoda, based on the phylogenetic method of Hennig, and focuses on discovering the derived character states that most probably had a common origin in an ancestral state.
Crucial Evidence for Antarctic Radiation
I write now upon two grounds; first, to make reply to some recent remarks by Noble (1925), and as an independent originator of the hostparasite idea supported by AMletcalf, to offer some further parasitic colnsiderations which seem to have a bearing on the question at issue.