Phylogeny and Taxonomy of Flatheads, Scorpionfishes, Sea Robins, and Stonefishes (Percomorpha: Scorpaeniformes) and the Evolution of the Lachrymal Saber

@article{Smith2018PhylogenyAT,
  title={Phylogeny and Taxonomy of Flatheads, Scorpionfishes, Sea Robins, and Stonefishes (Percomorpha: Scorpaeniformes) and the Evolution of the Lachrymal Saber},
  author={W. Leo Smith and Elizabeth R. Everman and C. C. Richardson},
  journal={Copeia},
  year={2018},
  volume={106},
  pages={119 - 94}
}
We report on the discovery of a remarkable defensive specialization in stonefishes that was identified during a phylogenetic study of scorpionfishes and their relatives. This newly described innovation, the lachrymal saber, involves modifications to the circumorbitals, maxilla, adductor mandibulae, and associated tendons. At its core, the lachrymal saber is an elongation of an anterior spine (or spines) on the ventral surface of the lachrymal that stonefishes are capable of rotating from the… 
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