Phylogeny and Molecular Evolution of the Green Algae

  title={Phylogeny and Molecular Evolution of the Green Algae},
  author={Frederik Leliaert and David Roy Smith and Herv{\'e} Moreau and Matthew D. Herron and Heroen Verbruggen and Charles F. Delwiche and Olivier De Clerck},
  journal={Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences},
  pages={1 - 46}
The green lineage (Viridiplantae) comprises the green algae and their descendants the land plants, and is one of the major groups of oxygenic photosynthetic eukaryotes. Current hypotheses posit the early divergence of two discrete clades from an ancestral green flagellate. One clade, the Chlorophyta, comprises the early diverging prasinophytes, which gave rise to the core chlorophytes. The other clade, the Streptophyta, includes the charophyte green algae from which the land plants evolved… 
Chloroplast phylogenomic analyses reveal the deepest-branching lineage of the Chlorophyta, Palmophyllophyceae class. nov.
The small, compact and intronless chloroplast genome of V. peltata shows striking similarities in gene content and organization with the cpDNAs of Prasinococcales and the streptophyte Mesostigma viride, indicating that cpDNA architecture has been extremely well conserved in these deep-branching lineages of green plants.
Systematics of the Green Algae: A Brief Introduction to the Current Status
Progress in green algal systematics at the species level revealed ITS2 rDNA as an appropriate candidate for DNA barcoding and species distinction and approaches to integrate sequence analyses of several genes with morphology are now state of the art for species delimitations.
Evolution of the Chlorophyta: Insights from chloroplast phylogenomic analyses
How chloroplast genomic data have contributed to address relationships among the main chlorophytan lineages is reviewed, recent progress and conflicts among different studies are highlighted, and future directions inchloroplast phylogenomics of green algae are discussed.
Chloroplast phylogenomic analysis resolves deep-level relationships within the green algal class Trebouxiophyceae
The inferred trees reveal that this class is not monophyletic; they offer new insights not only into the internal structure of the class but also into the lifestyle of its founding members and subsequent adaptations to changing environments.
Red Algal Phylogenomics Provides a Robust Framework for Inferring Evolution of Key Metabolic Pathways
This analysis revealed losses of the mevalonate pathway on at least three separate occasions in lineages that contain Cyanidioschyzon, Porphyridium, and Chondrus, establishing a framework for in-depth studies of the origin and evolution of genes and metabolic pathways in Rhodophyta.
The Genomes of Charophyte Green Algae
The Glaucophyta: the blue-green plants in a nutshell
Diverse comparative studies using information from the nuclear genome of Cyanophora paradoxa and recent transcriptomic data from other glaucophyte species provide support for the common origin of Archaeplastida.
Chloroplast phylogenomic analysis of chlorophyte green algae identifies a novel lineage sister to the Sphaeropleales (Chlorophyceae)
A chloroplast phylogenomic study advances knowledge regarding the circumscription and internal structure of the Chlamydomonadales, suggesting that a previously unrecognized lineage is sister to the Sphaeropleales.
From algae to angiosperms–inferring the phylogeny of green plants (Viridiplantae) from 360 plastid genomes
The limits and challenges of inferring a comprehensive green plant phylogeny from available complete or nearly complete plastid genome sequence data are explored and the importance of exploring the effects of different partitioning and character coding strategies is emphasized.


The Green Algal Ancestry of Land Plants as Revealed by the Chloroplast Genome
Phylogenies inferred from multiple chloroplast genes and proteins support the hypothesis that the Charales are sister to a clade composed of the Coleochaetales, the Zygnematales, and land plants, thus implying a more complex evolutionary history for charophycean green algae.
Ancestral chloroplast genome in Mesostigma viride reveals an early branch of green plant evolution
The structure and gene organization of this genome indicate that chloroplast DNA architecture has been extremely well conserved in the line leading to land plants.
Green algae and the origin of land plants.
A recent multigene analysis corroborates a close relationship between Mesostigma (formerly in the Prasinophyceae) and the charophyte algae, although sequence data of the Mesost Sigma mitochondrial genome analysis places the genus as sister toCharales, and these studies also support Charales as Sister to land plants.
Phylogeny and molecular evolution of green algae
An improved green algal phylogenetic tree is presented and the distribution of elongation factor genes EFL and EF1-alpha, reassignment of stop codons to glutamine, and high rates of molecular evolution of the ribosomal RNA indicate that profound changes occurred to the translational system of the Ulvophyceae.
Evolution of green plants as deduced from 5S rRNA sequences.
  • H. Hori, B. Lim, S. Osawa
  • Biology
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 1985
A phylogenic tree for green plants by comparing 5S rRNA sequences suggests that the emergence of most of the uni- and multicellular green algae such as Chlamydomonas, Spirogyra, Ulva, and Chlorella occurred in the early stage of green plant evolution.
Actin Phylogeny Identifies Mesostigma viride as a Flagellate Ancestor of the Land Plants
Phylogenetic analyses show Mesostigma to be the earliest divergence within the Streptophyta and provide direct evidence for a scaly, biflagellate, unicellular ancestor for this lineage.
The chloroplast genomes of the green algae Pyramimonas, Monomastix, and Pycnococcus shed new light on the evolutionary history of prasinophytes and the origin of the secondary chloroplasts of euglenids.
It is revealed that major reduction in gene content and restructuring of the chloroplast genome occurred in conjunction with important changes in cell organization in at least two independent prasinophyte lineages, the Mamiellales and the Pycnococcaceae.
Into the deep: New discoveries at the base of the green plant phylogeny
Current insights into the origin and diversification of the green plant lineage are discussed and it is suggested that the earliest‐diverging Chlorophyta were motile planktonic unicellular organisms.