Phylogenetic relationships and classification of the Vespinae (Hymenoptera: Vespidae)

@article{Carpenter1987PhylogeneticRA,
  title={Phylogenetic relationships and classification of the Vespinae (Hymenoptera: Vespidae)},
  author={James M. Carpenter},
  journal={Systematic Entomology},
  year={1987},
  volume={12}
}
  • J. Carpenter
  • Published 1 October 1987
  • Biology
  • Systematic Entomology
Abstract. The phylogenetic relationships of the genera, subgenera and species‐groups of the Vespinae are analysed using cladistic techniques. The results are used as the basis for a natural classification of these wasps. The cladogram for the four genera recognized is: Vespa+(Provespa + (Dolichovespula + Vespula)). No subgenera are recognized; all those previously described are synonymized with the appropriate genus. The synonymies of Nyctovespa with Vespa and Rugovespula with Vespula are new. 

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