OBJECTIVE In order to study the diversity of endophytic endospore-forming bacteria in Cinnamomum longepaniculatum. METHODS We took modified nutrient agar medium for isolation and cultivation and analyzed the 16S rRNA gene sequences of the isolates. RESULTS Forty non-redundant endospore-forming bacterial isolates were ascertained, which accounted for 38.1% of all the endophytic bacterial isolates. Of them, 24 isolates were from roots, 7 from stems and 9 from leaves. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that 35 of them belonged to 16 species of the genera Bacillus, Lysinibacillus and Paenibacillus, and 5 isolates with < 97% sequence similarities to their closely related members were presumed to be potential novel species. CONCLUSION The results showed that the cultivable endospore-forming bacteria diversity was abundant and there were some potential novel strains in Cinnamomum longepaniculatum. The microflora of endophytic endospore-forming bacteria in individuals of C. longepaniculatum showed that some bacteria distributed in different organs, but the others were organ-specific bacteria.