Phylogenetic distribution and evolution of mycorrhizas in land plants

  title={Phylogenetic distribution and evolution of mycorrhizas in land plants},
  author={B. Wang and Yanning Qiu},
A survey of 659 papers mostly published since 1987 was conducted to compile a checklist of mycorrhizal occurrence among 3,617 species (263 families) of land plants. A plant phylogeny was then used to map the mycorrhizal information to examine evolutionary patterns. Several findings from this survey enhance our understanding of the roles of mycorrhizas in the origin and subsequent diversification of land plants. First, 80 and 92% of surveyed land plant species and families are mycorrhizal… 

The distribution and evolution of fungal symbioses in ancient lineages of land plants

It is estimated that fewer than 30% of liverwort species engage in symbiosis with fungi belonging to all three mycorrhizal phyla, Mucoromycota, BasidiomycOTA and Ascomycota; and fungal symbioses in hornworts and lycophytes appear to be more common.

Evolution of ectomycorrhizal symbiosis in plants

There is still much confusion about the mycorrhizal status in multiple families where conflicting reports exist and incorrect assignments have rooted themselves deeply in the literature, and further research needs in critical taxa are pointed to to improve the overall understanding about the evolution of ectomycorrhIZal symbiosis in plants.

Evolutionary dynamics of mycorrhizal symbiosis in land plant diversification

This work shows that the recruitment of Mucoromycotina is the best supported transition from a non-mycorrhizal state, and portrays an evolutionary scenario of evolution of mycorrhIZal symbiosis with a prominent role for Muc oromycotinas in the early stages of land plant diversification.

Mycorrhizal ecology and evolution: the past, the present, and the future.

Large-scale molecular surveys have provided novel insights into the diversity, spatial and temporal dynamics of mycorrhizal fungal communities, and network theory makes it possible to analyze interactions between plant-fungal partners as complex underground multi-species networks.

Mycorrhizas in the Central European flora: relationships with plant life history traits and ecology.

This study of the relationships between mycorrhizal status and other plant traits provides a comprehensive test of existing hypotheses and reveals novel patterns in plant-mycorrhIZal ecology.

Global distribution patterns of mycoheterotrophy

The results highlight the non‐trivial nature of mycorrhizal interactions, and indicate that identity of the partners is not enough to understand the underlying mechanisms promoting plant–fungal interactions in mycoheterotrophic plants.

Presence of three mycorrhizal genes in the common ancestor of land plants suggests a key role of mycorrhizas in the colonization of land by plants.

The results indicate that the mycorrhizal genes were present in the common ancestor of land plants, and that their functions were largely conserved during land plant evolution.

A 60-year journey of mycorrhizal research in China: Past, present and future directions

The aim of this review is to make a comprehensive exposure of the past and present China’s major mycorrhizal research to the whole world, and to suggest potential directions for the enhancement of future mycorRhizalResearch within and/or between the Chinese and international mycor Rhizal community.

Natural selection and the evolutionary ecology of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Phylum Glomeromycota).

It is argued that direct selection on fungal traits related to their survival and performance in the soil independent of the host is likely to be the major driver of differentiation in the AM fungi, and the evidence for direct fungal responses to soil conditions such as pH, hypoxia, and temperature is reviewed.

Niche differentiation and expansion of plant species are associated with mycorrhizal symbiosis

The results indicate that mycorrhizal symbiosis mediates plant niche differentiation and expansion, facilitating the understanding of current distribution patterns of plant species, as well as predicting shifts in plant distribution and dominance due to environmental changes.



Coevolution of roots and mycorrhizas of land plants.

It is hypothesised that roots gradually evolved from rhizomes to provide more suitable habitats for mycorrhizal fungi and provide plants with complex branching and leaves with water and nutrients.

Evolutionary instability of ectomycorrhizal symbioses in basidiomycetes

The results indicate that mycorrhizal symbionts with diverse plant hosts have evolved repeatedly from saprotrophic precursors, but also that there have been multiple reversals to a free-living condition, suggesting that myCorrhizae are unstable, evolutionarily dynamic associations.

Fine‐level mycorrhizal specificity in the Monotropoideae (Ericaceae): specificity for fungal species groups

The results indicate that both the macro‐ and microevolution of the Monotropoideae are tightly coupled to their mycorrhizal symbionts.

Evolutionary trends in root-microbe symbioses

The phylogenetic pattern of mycorrhizal associations is analysed, and it is shown that the ectomycorrhIZal association has almost certainly arisen more than once, although other types are more concentrated phylogenetically.

Ecological and evolutionary significance of mycorrhizal symbioses in vascular plants (A Review).

Ectomycorrhizal forests are generally temperate or occur on infertile soils in the tropics, and apparently have expanded in a series of ecologically important events through the course of time from the Middle Cretaceous onward at the expense of endomycor Rhizale forests.

The biology of myco-heterotrophic ('saprophytic') plants.

  • J. Leake
  • Environmental Science
    The New phytologist
  • 1994
Most myco-heterotrophs are entirely subterranean for most of their lives and these stages exhibit adaptations consistent with a change in function from organs of absorption to organs of storage, shown by the almost universal loss of root hairs, decrease in surface area.

Changing partners in the dark: isotopic and molecular evidence of ectomycorrhizal liaisons between forest orchids and trees

These findings represent a major shift in the understanding of both orchid ecology and evolution because they explain how orchids can thrive in low–irradiance niches and they show that a shift to exploiting ectomycorrhizal fungi precedes viable losses of photosynthetic ability in orchid lineages.

Assembling the fungal tree of life: progress, classification, and evolution of subcellular traits.

This study provides a phylogenetic synthesis for the Fungi and a framework for future phylogenetic studies on fungi and the impact of this newly discovered phylogenetic structure on supraordinal classifications is discussed.

Vegetative and reproductive innovations of early land plants: implications for a unified phylogeny.

Development and structural innovations suggest the three bryophyte groups diverged prior to elaboration of this generation, and phylogenetic analysis of three different data sets is the most comprehensive to date and points to a single phylogenetic solution for the evolution of basal embryophytes.

Specialized cheating of the ectomycorrhizal symbiosis by an epiparasitic liverwort

It is shown that a non–vascular plant, the non–photosynthetic liverwort Cryptothallus mirabilis, is epiparasitic and is specialized on Tulasnella species that form ectomycorrhizae with surrounding trees at four locations in England, France and Portugal.