Archaea in particle-rich waters of the Beaufort Shelf and Franklin Bay, Canadian Arctic: Clues to an allochthonous origin?
We used in situ hybridization with fluorescently labeled rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes concurrently with measurements of bacterial carbon production, biomass, and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) to describe the bacterial community in sediments along a glacial stream. The abundance of sediment-associated Archaea, as detected with the ARCH915 probe, decreased downstream of the glacier snout, and a major storm increased their relative abundance by a factor of 5.5 to 7.9. Bacteria of the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium group were also sixfold to eightfold more abundant in the storm aftermath. Furthermore, elevated numbers of Archaea and members of the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium group characterized the phylogenetic composition of the supraglacial ice community. We postulate that glacial meltwaters constitute a possible source of allochthonous bacteria to the stream biofilms. Although stream water temperature increased dramatically from the glacier snout along the stream (3.5 km), sediment chlorophyll a was the best predictor for bacterial carbon production and specific growth rates along the stream. Concomitant with an increase in sediment chlorophyll a, the EPS carbohydrate-to-bacterial-cell ratio declined 11- to 15-fold along the stream prior to the storm, which is indicative of a larger biofilm matrix in upstream reaches. We assume that a larger biofilm matrix is required to assure prolonged transient storage and enzymatic processing of allochthonous macromolecules, which are likely the major substrate for microbial heterotrophs. Bacteria of the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium cluster, which are well known to degrade complex macromolecules, were most abundant in these stream reaches. Downstream, higher algal biomass continuously supplies heterotrophs with easily available exudates, therefore making a larger matrix unnecessary. As a result, bacterial carbon production and specific growth rates were higher in downstream reaches.