Phylogenetic analysis reveals an evolutionary transition from internal to external brooding in Epiactis Verrill (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Actiniaria) and rejects the validity of the genus Cnidopus Carlgren.

@article{Larson2016PhylogeneticAR,
  title={Phylogenetic analysis reveals an evolutionary transition from internal to external brooding in Epiactis Verrill (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Actiniaria) and rejects the validity of the genus Cnidopus Carlgren.},
  author={Paul G. Larson and Marymegan Daly},
  journal={Molecular phylogenetics and evolution},
  year={2016},
  volume={94 Pt B},
  pages={
          548-558
        }
}
  • P. Larson, M. Daly
  • Published 2016
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Molecular phylogenetics and evolution
Reproductive behaviors in the sea anemone genus Epiactis provide an opportunity for investigating the evolution of reproductive phenomena such as brooding and sex allocation (hermaphroditic vs. gonochoric) in a group of closely related and easily accessible species. However, given its broad geographic distribution, the striking diversity in reproductive behaviors, and the lack of synapomorphy for the genus, the monophyly of Epiactis is questionable. Here we perform phylogenetic analyses to test… 
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Phylogenetic relationships among the clownfish-hosting sea anemones.
TLDR
The largest phylogenetic analysis of sea anemones (Order Actiniaria) to date is conducted, with a focus on expanding the biogeographic and taxonomic sampling of the 10 nominal clownfish-hosting species, and demonstrates widespread poly- and para-phyly at the family and genus level.
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It is concluded that A. crassicornis reproduces continuously throughout the year and that although most of the juveniles were found in females, male specimens can breed.
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