The phylogenetic relationships of all known species of the genus Aeromonas were investigated by using the sequence of gyrB, a gene that encodes the B-subunit of DNA gyrase. Nucleotide sequences of gyrB were determined from 53 Aeromonas strains, including some new isolates, which were also characterized by analysis of the 16S rDNA variable regions. The results support the recognition of the family Aeromonadaceae, as distinct from Plesiomonas shigelloides and other enteric bacteria. This phylogenetic marker revealed strain groupings that are consistent with the taxonomic organization of all Aeromonas species described to date. In particular, gyrB results agreed with 16S rDNA analysis; moreover, the former showed a higher capacity to differentiate between species. The present analysis was useful for the elucidation of reported discrepancies between different DNA-DNA hybridization sets. Additionally, due to the sequence diversity found at the intraspecies level, gyrB is proposed as a useful target for simultaneous identification of species and strains. In conclusion, the gyrB gene has proved to be an excellent molecular chronometer for phylogenetic studies of the genus Aeromonas.