Phylogenetic analysis and expression patterns of Pax genes in the onychophoran Euperipatoides rowelli reveal a novel bilaterian Pax subfamily

@article{Franke2015PhylogeneticAA,
  title={Phylogenetic analysis and expression patterns of Pax genes in the onychophoran Euperipatoides rowelli reveal a novel bilaterian Pax subfamily},
  author={Franziska Anni Franke and Isabell Schumann and Lars Hering and Georg Mayer},
  journal={Evolution \& Development},
  year={2015},
  volume={17}
}
Pax family genes encode a class of transcription factors that regulate various developmental processes. To shed light on the evolutionary history of these genes in Panarthropoda (Onychophora + Tardigrada + Arthropoda), we analyzed the Pax repertoire in the embryonic and adult transcriptomes of the onychophoran Euperipatoides rowelli. Our data revealed homologs of all five major bilaterian Pax subfamilies in this species, including Pax2/5/8, Pax4/6, Pox‐neuro, Pax1/9/Pox‐meso, and Pax3/7. In… 
The Pax gene family: Highlights from cephalopods
TLDR
It is shown that Pax roles taken as ancestral and common in metazoans are modified in S. officinalis, most likely due to either the morphological specificities of cephalopods or to their direct development.
Ancestral and novel roles of Pax family genes in mollusks
TLDR
Developmental expression of Pax2/5/8, Pax6, and the lophotrochozoan-specific Paxβ in the worm-shaped mollusk Wirenia argentea, a member of Aplacophora that together with Polyplacophile forms the Aculifera, suggests co-option in aculiferan skeletogenesis.
Expression of NK cluster genes in the onychophoran Euperipatoides rowelli: implications for the evolution of NK family genes in nephrozoans
TLDR
The results indicate that the NK cluster genes were involved in mesoderm and neural development in the last common ancestor of bilaterians or at least nephrozoans and critically review the hypothesis of a complex “urbilaterian” with a segmented body, a pulsatile organ or heart, and a condensed mediolaterally patterned nerve cord.
Origins and evolvability of the PAX family.
TLDR
Both stability and evolvability shaped the molecular evolution of this key transcriptional network, accompanied by specific changes that led to adaptive novelties.
Controversies Surrounding Segments and Parasegments in Onychophora: Insights from the Expression Patterns of Four “Segment Polarity Genes” in the Peripatopsid Euperipatoides rowelli
TLDR
The data clearly show that parasegments, even if present, cannot be regarded as the initial metameric units of the onychophoran embryo, because the expression of key genes that define the parasegmental boundaries in arthropods occurs after the segmental boundaries have formed.
Expression study of the hunchback ortholog in embryos of the onychophoran Euperipatoides rowelli
TLDR
The expression pattern of hunchback in embryos of the onychophoran Euperipatoides rowelli is examined, finding no evidence for a putative function ofHunchback as a “gap gene” in Onychphora.
Phylogenetic analysis and embryonic expression of panarthropod Dmrt genes
TLDR
Investigating the complete set of Dmrt genes in members of all main groups of Arthropoda and a member of Onychophora suggests deep homology of most of the panarthropod DmRT genes with respect to their function that likely dates back to their last common ancestor.
Ancestral role of Pax2/5/8 in molluscan brain and multimodal sensory system development
TLDR
Pax2/5/8 appears to have been recruited independently into regionalization of non-homologous complex brains of organisms as different as squid, fruit fly, and mouse, and probably predates sensory cell development during ontogeny.
Expression of NK genes that are not part of the NK cluster in the onychophoran Euperipatoides rowelli (Peripatopsidae)
TLDR
Comparison of expression data to those of other bilaterians revealed similar patterns of NK2.1, vax, BarH and Emx in various aspects of neural development, suggesting that the NKL genes might have been primarily involved in neural development in the last common ancestor of bilaterian or at least nephrozoans.
Analyses of nervous system patterning genes in the tardigrade Hypsibius exemplaris illuminate the evolution of panarthropod brains
TLDR
The results buttress the conclusion of the previous study of Hox genes—that the brain of tardigrades is only homologous to the protocerebrum of euarthropods.
...
1
2
3
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 70 REFERENCES
Paxβ: a novel family of lophotrochozoan Pax genes
TLDR
Paxβ genes in annelids, molluscs, a nemertean, a brachiopod, and a flatworm are identified, indicating that the founding gene duplication occurred before the separation of those taxa and therefore early in the lophotrochozoan radiation.
Expression of Pax gene family members in the anthozoan cnidarian, Nematostella vectensis
TLDR
The genome of an anthozoan cnidarian, the starlet sea anemone, Nematostella vectensis, has been surveyed by both degenerate polymerase chain reaction and in silico for the presence of Pax genes, and the first expression data for members of all four Pax classes in a single species of cnids are shown.
Pax gene diversity in the basal cnidarian Acropora millepora (Cnidaria, Anthozoa): implications for the evolution of the Pax gene family.
  • D. Miller, D. Hayward, +6 authors E. Ball
  • Biology, Medicine
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 2000
Pax genes encode a family of transcription factors, many of which play key roles in animal embryonic development but whose evolutionary relationships and ancestral functions are unclear. To address
Origin of Pax and Six gene families in sponges: Single PaxB and Six1/2 orthologs in Chalinula loosanoffi.
TLDR
The phylogeny of Pax and Six genes is analyzed and a model of the evolution of the Pax gene subfam families in metazoans is derived, illustrating a diversification of Pax genes into subfamilies mostly in triploblasts before the protostome-deuterostome split, whereas few subfam Families were lost in various phyla after the Cambrian explosion.
Expression of the decapentaplegic ortholog in embryos of the onychophoran Euperipatoides rowelli.
TLDR
Analysis of the expression patterns of a dpp ortholog in a representative of one of the closest arthropod relatives, the onychophoran Euperipatoides rowelli, revealed unique expression patterns in the early mesoderm anlagen of the antennal segment and in the dorsal and ventral extra-embryonic tissue, suggesting a divergent role of dpp in these tissues in OnyChophora.
Expression of Pax group III genes suggests a single‐segmental periodicity for opisthosomal segment patterning in the spider Cupiennius salei
TLDR
It is argued that there may be a correlation between the lower variation in patterns of segment‐polarity genes and the phylotypic stage, which is required to define the segment borders of the embryo at the germ‐band stage, the arthropod phylotypesic stage.
Pax3/7 genes reveal conservation and divergence in the arthropod segmentation hierarchy.
TLDR
It is found that Pax3/7 genes in crustaceans are expressed in an early broad and, in one case, dynamic domain followed by segmental stripes, while myriapods and chelicerates exhibit segmentsal stripes that form early in the posterior-most part of the germ band, which suggests that Pax4/8 genes acquired their role in segmentation deep within, or perhaps prior to, the arthropod lineage.
Comparative genomic analysis reveals the evolutionary conservation of Pax gene family.
TLDR
Analysis of phylogenetic topology derived from concatenated subfamily datasets uncovered a potential statistical bias of supermatrix approach and deduced an evolutionary scenario of Pax gene family.
Evolution of the gene families forming the Pax/Six regulatory network: Isolation of genes from primitive animals and molecular phylogenetic analyses
TLDR
Molecular phylogenetic analyses of the two gene families revealed that all gene duplications that gave rise to different subfamilies occurred before the divergence of cnidarians and bilaterians and most of these duplications antedate the sponge‐eumetazoan split.
Characterization and developmental expression of Pax9, a paired-box-containing gene related to Pax1.
TLDR
Results indicate that both Pax9 and -1 may act in parallel during morphogenesis of the vertebral column, and it is demonstrated that Pax9 can bind to the e5 sequence from the Drosophila even skipped promoter.
...
1
2
3
4
5
...