Phylogenetic Systematics of the North American Fossil Caninae (Carnivora: Canidae)

@inproceedings{Tedford2009PhylogeneticSO,
  title={Phylogenetic Systematics of the North American Fossil Caninae (Carnivora: Canidae)},
  author={Richard H. Tedford and Xiaoming Wang and Beryl E. Taylor},
  year={2009}
}
Abstract The canid subfamily Caninae includes all the living canids and their most recent fossil relatives. Their sister taxon is the Borophaginae with which they share an important modification of the lower carnassial, namely the presence of a bicuspid talonid, which gives this tooth an additional function in mastication. Contributing to this function is the enlargement of the posterolingual cingulum of M1 and development of a hypocone. The Caninae diverged from the Borophaginae in the… 
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The combination of the phylogenetic analyses, the fossil record and divergence dates estimated in previous works suggests that at least three or four independent lineages of the “South American clade” invaded South America after the establishment of the Panama bridge around 3 million years ago, plus other events corresponding to the immigration of Urocyon and Canis dirus.
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  • Geography, Environmental Science
  • 2009
ABSTRACT The occurrence of the Tribe Canini (subfamily Caninae) in the Hemphillian (Mio-Pliocene) of North America has been long known without finding contemporary relatives in the Old World.
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A review of paleontological material that was published previously, along with newly reported ancient specimens, reveals a distinct historical diversity for the same region of Venezuela and suggests a more complex evolutionary history than previously thought for South American canids.
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