Phylogenetic Relationships of Extinct Cetartiodactyls: Results of Simultaneous Analyses of Molecular, Morphological, and Stratigraphic Data

  title={Phylogenetic Relationships of Extinct Cetartiodactyls: Results of Simultaneous Analyses of Molecular, Morphological, and Stratigraphic Data},
  author={Jonathan H Geisler and Mark D. Uhen},
  journal={Journal of Mammalian Evolution},
  • J. Geisler, M. Uhen
  • Published 1 June 2005
  • Biology, Environmental Science
  • Journal of Mammalian Evolution
Although some recent morphological and molecular studies agree that Cetacea is closely related to Hippopotamidae, there is little consensus on the phylogeny within Cetartiodactyla. We addressed this problem by conducting two analyses: (1) a simultaneous cladistic analysis of intrinsic data (morphology and molecules) and (2) a stratocladistic analysis, which included morphological, molecular, and stratigraphic data. Unlike previous simultaneous analyses, we had the opportunity to include data… 
Impact of increased character sampling on the phylogeny of Cetartiodactyla (Mammalia): combined analysis including fossils
The phylogenetic position of Cetacea (whales, dolphins and porpoises) is an important exemplar problem for combined data parsimony analyses because the clade is ancient and includes many well‐known
Relationships of Cetacea (Artiodactyla) Among Mammals: Increased Taxon Sampling Alters Interpretations of Key Fossils and Character Evolution
The phylogenetic position of †Indohyus suggests that the cetacean stem lineage included herbivorous and carnivorous aquatic species, and the taxonomy of living and extinct artiodactylans is revised and proposes explicit node and stem-based definitions for the ingroup.
Early Miocene hippopotamids (Cetartiodactyla) constrain the phylogenetic and spatiotemporal settings of hippopotamid origin
An original morphological phylogenetic analysis including several “suiform” families and previously unexamined early Miocene taxa demonstrates a close relationship between Eocene choeropotamids and anthracotheriids, a relationship that potentially fills the evolutionary gap between earliest hippopotamid and cetaceans implied by molecular analyses.
High-level systematics of placental mammals: Current status of the problem
It is shown that the fossil record is the only reliable method to test the phylogenetic hypotheses based on the material of the molecular and morphological studies of recent taxa.
Evolving between land and water: key questions on the emergence and history of the Hippopotamidae (Hippopotamoidea, Cetancodonta, Cetartiodactyla)
The fossil record of the Hippopotamidae can shed light on three major issues in mammalian evolution, namely the sudden appearance of hippopotamines in the late Miocene, the subsequent rampant endemism in African basins, and the Pleistocene expansion of Hippopotamus.
Hippopotamus and whale phylogeny
It is demonstrated that Hippopotamidae is the closest extant family to Cetacea and that raoellids are the closest extinct group, consistent with previous phylogenetic studies, and supports the view that the aquatic adaptations in hippopotamids and cetaceans are inherited from their common ancestor.
Morphology, paleontology, and placental mammal phylogeny.
How “morphology” has not yet been fully exploited as a source of data for phylogenetic research is discussed, including their use of congruence of individual partitions to a “true” tree and their generalization across morphological data sets based on their evaluation of one matrix.
A new species of mesonychian mammal from the lower Eocene of Mongolia and its phylogenetic relationships
Autapomorphies of this new species are short face, absence of diastemata between the lower premolars (except between p1 and p2), m3 metaconid subequal to protoconid, and foramen for superior ramus of stapedial artery entirely within the petrosal.
A phylogenetic blueprint for a modern whale.
Morphology and phylogenetic relationships of the earliest known hippopotamids (Cetartiodactyla, Hippopotamidae, Kenyapotaminae)
The earliest known hippopotamids, attributed to the subfamily Kenyapotaminae, are known essentially from dental remains of two species, and a cladistic analysis reinforces a scenario linking cetaceans to Hippopotamoidea (Hippopotamidae + Anthracotheriidae), possibly via other early Palaeogene artiodactyls.


The Phylogenetic Position of Cetaceans: Further Combined Data Analyses, Comparisons with the Stratigraphic Record and a Discussion of Character Optimization1
A previous total evidence analysis of the position of cetaceans was updated by adding several hundred new informative molecular characters from the literature, finding that all most parsimonious trees indicate a paraphyletic Artiodactyla with conflict existing over the exact sister taxon of Cetacea.
The position of Cetacea within mammalia: phylogenetic analysis of morphological data from extinct and extant taxa.
Knowledge of the phylogenetic position of the order Cetacea (whales, dolphins, and porpoises) within Mammalia is of central importance to evolutionary biologists studying the transformations of
New Morphological Evidence for the Phylogeny of Artiodactyla, Cetacea, and Mesonychidae
Abstract Parsimony-based analyses of a data set including 68 taxa coded for 186 morphological characters corroborate monophyly of Artiodactyla (even-toed ungulates), Suiformes (hippos, pigs,
Stability of cladistic relationships between Cetacea and higher-level artiodactyl taxa.
Perturbations of the combined matrix show that the above clades are stable to a variety of disturbances and cladistic relationships between Cetacea and artiodactyls have been stable to increased taxonomic sampling and to the addition of more than 1,400 informative characters from 15 data sets.
Phylogenetic relationships of artiodactyls and cetaceans as deduced from the comparison of cytochrome b and 12S rRNA mitochondrial sequences.
The combined analysis of the two genes suggests a monophyletic Cetacea +Artiodactyla clade, whereas PerissodactylA, Carnivora, and Tethytheria fall outside this clade.
Relationships of Endemic African Mammals and Their Fossil Relatives Based on Morphological and Molecular Evidence
Analyses of anatomical and DNA sequence data run on a parallel supercomputer that include fossil taxa support the inclusion of tenrecs and golden moles in the Afrotheria, an endemic African clade of placental mammals, and support the position of AfroTheria as well-nested, not basal, within Placentalia.
Phylogenetic relationships among cetartiodactyls based on insertions of short and long interpersed elements: hippopotamuses are the closest extant relatives of whales.
It is concluded that cetaceans evolved from an immediate artiodactyl, not mesonychian, ancestor, thereby shedding light on the origin of whales.
A Concern for Evidence and a Phylogenetic Hypothesis of Relationships among Epicrates (Boidae, Serpentes)
High levels of character congruence were observed among 89 biochemical and morphological synapomorphies scored on 10 species of Epicrates, and the consensus cladogram was consistent with the phylogenetic interpretation attached to the resulting hypothesis, which is a consensus of two equally parsimonious cladograms.
Molecular phylogenetics and the origins of placental mammals
The potential weaknesses of limited character and taxon sampling are addressed in a comprehensive molecular phylogenetic analysis of 64 species sampled across all extant orders of placental mammals, providing new insight into the pattern of the early placental mammal radiation.
It is reported that morphological data from extinct and extant taxa support placement of Cetacea within Artiodactyla as the closest relatives of Hippopotamidae and indicate that molecular and morphological evidence for the phylogeny of these taxa are now much more congruent than previously thought.